Nov 8, 2011

OPV Oral Vaccine what is it?

What Is the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)?

Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is a vaccine that contains live but weakened poliovirus. OPV is highly effective in polio prevention. However, because of the risk of a rare but serious condition called vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, OPV use in the United States was discontinued in 2000.

History of Polio and OPV

A 1916 polio epidemic in the United States killed 6,000 people and paralyzed 27,000 more. In the early 1950s, there were more than 20,000 cases of polio each year.
The first polio vaccine was licensed in 1955. This polio vaccine was an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), meaning it did not contain any live poliovirus. By 1960, the number of cases had dropped to about 3,000. In 1961, an oral polio vaccine was licensed. As the number of cases ofpolio disease continued to drop after its introduction, it became the vaccine of choice in the United States and most other countries of the world.
In 1979, the last cases of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus in the United States occurred. The success of polio vaccination in the United States and other countries sparked a worldwide effort to eliminate polio.
In 1998, an enhanced-potency inactivated polio vaccine became available. Because OPV can cause a rare but serious reaction called vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, it was recommended that OPV not be used. In 2000, the use of OPV in the Unites States was discontinued.

An inoculation designed to prevent POLIO. The killed virus vaccine (IPV) is currently recommended for almost all children in the United States. Until recently, the live oral polio vaccine (OPV) was recommended for most children. While both vaccines provide immunity to polio, OPV was better at keeping the disease from spreading to other people. However, for a few people (about one in 2.4 million), OPV actually caused polio. Since the risk of getting polio in the United States is now virtually gone, experts believe that using oral polio vaccine is no longer worth the slight risk. The killed virus polio shot (IPV) never causes polio.
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