3 may. 2012

Polio this week - As of 18 April 2012

       Polio this week As of 18 April 2012

  • Nigeria only country to report cases this week: Six new cases have been reported in northern Nigeria, including one case of infection with wild polio virus type 3. This raises the concern that too many children continue to be missed during immunization activities. In some areas of Nigeria, notably inBorno, Kano, Sokoto and Yobe, more than one-third of all children remain under-immunized. A continued surge in cases in northern Nigeria poses the risk of renewed spread of the virus to other nations in west Africa. In the past, polio virus has spread from northern Nigeria to Niger, then on into Burkina Faso and Mali. The risk is further magnified given the security situation in Mali. 

Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases
Year-to-date 2012
Year-to-date 2011
Total in 2011* 
- in endemic countries
- in non-endemic countries

Case breakdown by country HERE
Data in WHO as of 19 Apr 2011 for 2011 data and 17 Apr 2012 for 2012 data.

Poliomyelitis Mayo Foundation

Poliomyelitis Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER)

Filed under: Infectious Diseases
Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death.
In the U.S., the last case of wild polio — polio caused naturally, not by a vaccine containing live virus — occurred in 1979. Today, despite a concerted global eradication campaign, wild poliovirus continues to affect children and adults in Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises taking precautions to protect against polio if you're traveling anywhere there's a risk of polio. If you're a previously vaccinated adult who plans to travel to an area where polio is occurring, you should receive a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus. Immunity following a booster dose lasts a lifetime.©1998-2010 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER)
Although polio can cause paralysis and death, the vast majority of people who are infected with the poliovirus don't become sick and are never aware they've been infected with polio.
Nonparalytic polio
Some people who develop symptoms from the poliovirus contract nonparalytic polio — a type of polio that doesn't lead to paralysis (abortive poliomyelitis). This usually causes the same mild, flu-like signs and symptoms typical of other viral illnesses.
Signs and symptoms, which generally last two to 10 days, include:
                Sore throat
                Back pain or stiffness
                Neck pain or stiffness
                Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs
                Muscle spasms or tenderness
Paralytic polio
Fewer than 1 percent of people infected with poliovirus develop paralytic polio, the most serious form of the disease. Initial signs and symptoms of paralytic polio, such as fever and headache, often mimic those of nonparalytic polio. Between one and 10 days later however, signs and symptoms specific to paralytic polio appear, including:
                Loss of reflexes
                Severe muscle aches or spasms
                Loose and floppy limbs (acute flaccid paralysis), often worse on one side of the body
The onset of paralysis may be sudden.
Classifications of paralytic polio
Paralytic polio has historically been divided into several types, depending primarily on which part of the body is affected. These classifications aren't rigid, and overlap may occur among the different forms.
                Spinal polio. This most common form of paralytic polio attacks certain nerve cells (motor neurons) in your spinal cord and may cause paralysis of the muscles that control breathing and those in your arms and legs. Sometimes the neurons are only damaged, in which case you may recover some degree of muscle function. But if the neurons are completely destroyed, the paralysis is irreversible, although you still retain your sense of feeling, unlike after many spinal cord injuries.
                Bulbar polio. In this severe type of polio, the virus affects the motor neurons in your brainstem, where the centers of the cranial nerves are located. These nerves are involved in your ability to see, hear, smell, taste and swallow. They also affect the movement of muscles in your face and send signals to your heart, intestines and lungs. Bulbar polio can interfere with any of these functions but is especially likely to affect your ability to breathe, speak and swallow and can be fatal without respiratory support.
                Bulbospinal polio. A combination of both bulbar and spinal paralytic polio, this form can lead to paralysis of your arms and legs and may also affect breathing, swallowing and heart function.
Post-polio syndrome . 
Affecting some people who have recovered from polio, post-polio syndrome is a cluster of disabling signs and symptoms that appears decades — an average of 30 to 40 years — after the initial illness. Common signs and symptoms include:
                Progressive muscle or joint weakness and pain
                General fatigue and exhaustion after minimal activity
                Muscle atrophy
                Breathing or swallowing problems
                Sleep-related breathing disorders, such as sleep apnea
                Decreased tolerance of cold temperatures
When to see a doctor
Be sure to check with your doctor for polio vaccination recommendations before traveling to a part of the world where polio may still occur naturally or where oral polio vaccine (OPV) is still used, such as Central and South America, Africa and Asia. In countries that use the OPV — vaccine made with live, but weakened (attenuated) polio virus — the risk of paralytic polio to travelers is extremely low, but not zero.
Additionally, call your doctor if:
                Your child hasn't completed the series of polio vaccinations
                Your child experiences an allergic reaction after receiving polio vaccine
                Your child has problems other than a mild redness or soreness at the vaccine injection site
                You have questions about adult vaccination or other concerns about polio immunization
                You had polio years ago and are now experiencing unexplained weakness and fatigue
The poliovirus resides only in humans and enters the environment in the feces of someone who's infected. Poliovirus spreads primarily through the fecal-oral route, especially in areas where sanitation is inadequate.
Poliovirus can be transmitted through contaminated water and food or through direct contact with someone infected with the virus. Polio is so contagious that anyone living with a recently infected person is likely to become infected too. Although people carrying the poliovirus are most contagious seven to 10 days before and after signs and symptoms appear, they can spread the virus for weeks in their feces.
You're at greatest risk of polio if you haven't been immunized against the disease. In areas with poor sanitation and sporadic or nonexistent immunization programs, the most vulnerable members of the population — pregnant women, the very young and those with weakened immune systems — are especially susceptible to poliovirus.
These factors also increase your risk if you haven't been vaccinated:
                Travel to an area where polio is common or that has recently experienced an outbreak
                Living with or caring for someone who may be shedding poliovirus
                Handling laboratory specimens that contain live poliovirus
                A compromised immune system, such as occurs with HIV infection
                Having had your tonsils removed (tonsillectomy)
                Extreme stress or strenuous physical activity after being exposed to poliovirus, both of which can depress your immune system
Paralytic polio can lead to temporary or permanent muscle paralysis, disability, and deformities of the hips, ankles and feet. Although many deformities can be corrected with surgery and physical therapy, these treatments may not be options in developing nations where polio is still endemic. As a result, children who survive polio may spend their lives with severe disabilities.
Doctors often recognize polio by symptoms such as neck and back stiffness, abnormal reflexes, and difficulty swallowing and breathing. To confirm the diagnosis, a sample of throat secretions, stool or cerebrospinal fluid — a colorless fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord — is checked for the presence of poliovirus.
Because no cure for polio exists, the focus is on increasing comfort, speeding recovery and preventing complications. Supportive treatments include:
                Bed rest
                Antibiotics for secondary infections (none for poliovirus)
                Analgesics for pain
                Portable ventilators to assist breathing
                Moderate exercise (physiotherapy) to prevent deformity and loss of muscle function
                A nutritious diet  ©1998-2010 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Prevention
México a la vanguardia en el Síndrome de Post Polio

Health authorities in Pakistan hope that a programme to promote child vaccination

Pakistan polio vaccination project among award winners

Ashfaq Yusufzai
27 April 2012 | EN
Vaccine research for peace
Children in the mountainous area of Pakistan will benefit from the vaccination campaign
[PESHAWAR] Health authorities in Pakistan hope that a programme to promote child vaccination will do away with misconceptions about the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the country's Swat district, and create a demand for immunisation.
The programme, called The Awakening, is one of five projects awarded US$10,000 by the Southern Vaccine Advocacy Challenge — established and supported by the Ethical, Social and Cultural Programme of Canada's Sandra Rotman Centre — to educate developing countries about the benefits of immunisation.
It will work in areas  of the Swat district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to encourage immunisation against eight diseases.
The area "was controlled by the Taliban until 2009 and health workers seldom dare to visit", Erfaan Hussein Babak, director of the programme, said in a press release. "The population has suffered greatly over the years and the child mortality rate from the preventable diseases [such as polio, measles and hepatitis] is distressingly high."
Close to half of the children in parts of the district are not available for vaccinations, Babak told SciDev.Net. "The majority of them live in the mountains and are not aware of the significance of immunisation."
"We have formed village health committees and plan to hold stage dramas in schools [and] broadcast programmes from local FM radios to create awareness about the importance of vaccination among the people," he said.
Babak added that project has also been holding awareness sessions with the local population, especially mothers.
"Mothers should be sensitised [to the fact] that vaccination will prevent their kids from [getting] diseases. One we educate women there would be no looking  back in achieving 100 per coverage," he said.
Jan Baz Afridi, head of the government's Expanded Programme on Immunisation in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, said the Swat district saw "22 cases in 2009 due to Taliban's opposition to oral polio vaccination" but added that there were no reported cases since February 2010.
He said that the Taliban considered the vaccination a tool by the United States to render the recipients infertile and impotent and cut the population of the Muslims.
Babak said the programme will also target ill-founded religious beliefs with the help of local clerics and prayer leaders.
"The people believe the religious leaders, therefore, we are sensitising them to pave the way for smooth-sailing of vaccination", he said.
Pakistan is one of only three countries, alongside Afghanistan and Nigeria, where polio is still endemic. Last year there were 198 reported cases in Pakistan.
The Southern Vaccine Advocacy Challenge awards coincided with the World Immunisation Week (21–28 April). Other awardees include science cafes in local languages aimed at women in Uganda; promotion of pneumonia vaccines in Egypt and human papillomavirus vaccines in El Salvador; and fighting HIV/AIDS stigma in South Africa.


PESHAWAR, Pakistan, 20 April 2012 – A sermon by an imam is all it takes to change misconceptions about the polio vaccines in some communities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, in northwest Pakistan. A brief talk by the religious leader reassures everyone that no harm – medical, social or religious – comes from the life-saving vaccine.

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