Oct 22, 2012

World Polio Day: The Fight Continues


Child receiving polio vaccine in mouth (Global Polio Eradication Initiative)

Every October 24, people around the world shine a spotlight on the importance of eradicating the crippling disease of polio.
Although only some 145 new cases of polio have been reported worldwide in 2012, in three countries this disease remains endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
At a recent United Nations event, representatives of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, leaders from donor nations and leaders from countries still battling the disease announced their resolve to eradicate polio and prevent its resurgence.
In the early 20th century, polio was one of the most feared diseases, paralyzing thousands of children every year. With the introduction of effective vaccines in the 1950s and 1960s, however, polio was brought under control in most countries.
Over the last 20 years, the United States has invested more than $2.1 billion in polio eradication, in partnership governments and international organizations.
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    Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico


    Oct 18, 2012

    Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the post-polio syndrome



    Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the post-polio syndrome: Henrik Gonzalez1, Mohsen Khademi2, Kristian Borg1* and Tomas Olsson2

    Abstract
    Background
    Expression of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has led to the hypothesis of intrathecal chronic inflammation to explain the denervation observed in post-polio syndrome (PPS). It has been shown that therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) improves physical performance and dampens down the inflammatory process at 6 months in PPS patients. We here examined the effects of IVIG on cytokine expression and clinical outcome one year after IVIG treatment.
    Methods
    From a previous study with 135 PPS patients included, 41 patients were further evaluated before un-blinding for one year (21 placebo and 20 treated with IVIG, Xepol® 50 mg/ml), and were assessed for clinical variables by performing the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36) questionnaire assessment, the 6 minute walk distance test (6MWT) and registering pain level by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after IVIG treatment. A separate cohort of 37 PPS patients went through lumbar puncture (LP) at baseline and 20 patients, treated with IVIG, repeated the LP one year later. Thirty patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND) were used as control group. Inflammatory cytokines TNF, TGFβ, IFNγ, IL-23, IL-13 and IL-10 were measured in blood cells and CSF cells with RT-PCR.
    Results
    Scores of the physical components of SF-36 were significantly higher at the one year follow up time-point in the IVIG-treated patients when compared to baseline as well as to the control subjects. Pain VAS score and 6MWT improved significantly in the IVIG-treated patients when compared with baseline Relative expression of TNF and IFN-γ in both PBMCs and CSF from PPS patients were increased compared to OND subjects at baseline (p < 0.05). One year after IVIG-treatment a decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL23 was found in CSF of PPS patients, while anti-inflammatory IL-13 was increased (p < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    IVIG has effects on relevant QoL variables and inflammatory cytokines up to one year in patients with PPS. This gives a basis for scheduling IVIG in upcoming trials with this therapy.
    Keywords: Post-polio syndrome (PPS); Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG); Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); Inflammatory cytokines

    Oct 17, 2012

    New Vaccine Joins Campaign to End Polio














    New Vaccine Joins Campaign to End Polio
    New Vaccine Joins Campaign to End Polio
    • Order: 
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    • Duration: 4:02
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    • Published: 10 Feb 2010
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    • Updated: 29 Aug 2012
    This is the VOA Special English Development Report, from voaspecialenglish.com The World Health Organization has begun to use a new vaccine against polio. Officials say it will become a major tool in the campaign to end a disease that mainly affects children under age five. The new formulation is known as BOPV, or bivalent oral polio vaccine. It was used for the first time in December in a polio immunization campaign in Afghanistan. Carol Pandak is with the PolioPlus program of the service organization Rotary International. She explains that health workers have been using what are called trivalent vaccines in some places. These are areas like Afghanistan where more than one kind of polio virus exists. There are three types of polio virus. The trivalent vaccine is least effective against type three, more effective against type one and highly effective against type two. As a result, few new cases of type two have been reported since nineteen ninety-nine. This has led to greater use of monovalent vaccines to protect against either type one or type three polio. But Carol Pandak says the monovalent vaccine is not enough in areas with both kinds of polio. Rod Curtis at the World Health Organization in Geneva says the new bivalent vaccine solves this problem. Carol Pandak says tests found the new vaccine to be thirty percent more effective than the trivalent vaccine. More than thirty new cases of polio were reported in Afghanistan last year. About half were type one and the ...
    Gov't Issues Polio Alert
    Gov't Issues Polio Alert
    • Order: 
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    • Duration: 3:28
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    • Published: 06 Sep 2011
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    • Updated: 05 Jul 2012
    Author: kenyacitizentv
    The government has declared a public health alert after a three - year - old boy tested positive for a polio - type virus in Rongo district of Nyanza province. Public health and sanitation Beth Mugo said ministry officials have since been dispatched to the area in an effort to contain the outbreak as well as administer polio vaccines to children under the age of five. The ministry will undertake house to house vaccinations in five regions which have been declared highly volatile. Judy Kosgey has that report.

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