Sep 18, 2013

Three-dimensional structure of Poliovirus receptor bound to Poliovirus




a) “Road map” representations (3637) of poliovirus (Left) and rhinovirus-14 [Right; (33)]. The corresponding triangular area of the capsid surface, bounded by a 5-fold and two 3-fold icosahedral symmetry axes, is marked (Inset). The radial distances of surface residues from the virion center are color coded and contoured [see key (Top Right)]. Nomenclature: 3145, residue 145 of VP3. The receptor footprints are shown in white. (b) A ribbon diagram (38) of the sPvr model is flanked by two views (39) of a single sPvr molecule as portrayed in the cryoelectron microscopy density map (white cage), enclosing the model of the three sPvr domains, d1 (cyan), d2 (orange), and d3 (violet). Carbohydrates attached to d2 [to N188(Left) and N237 (Right)] and possibly to d1 are shown in brown. Also shown are the capsid proteins VP1 (blue), VP2 (yellow), VP3 (red), and VP4 (green). The tunnel beneath the sPvr-binding site is evident (white arrows). “Pocket factor” is magenta. (c) The sPvr sequence is mapped onto secondary structural elements of the homology model. Asn residues thought to be glycosylated are marked with asterisks. (d) Ribbon diagram (38) showing the docking of the sPvr model onto the capsid surface. Same color conventions as in b. The axes allow this view to be related to Fig.4. (e) Schematic diagram showing a possible binding configuration of poliovirus with intact membrane-bound Pvr.http://www.pnas.org/content/97/1/73.longFig.4.

The End of Polio by 2018 – unless the funding dries up



More than 400 eminent scientists from 80 countries around the world have announced their backing for an ambitious global plan to eradicate polio, a disease that once paralysed and killed millions.
Despite security threats and doubts about funding, scientists say the aim of ending polio so that “no child will ever again be crippled by this disease” is achievable.
Launching the Scientific Declaration on Polio Eradication, they called on governments, international organisations and philanthropic individuals to fund the $5.5bn (£3.5bn) cost of eliminating the few remaining cases of polio and end transmission of the disease by 2014, so that the world may be declared polio-free in 2018.
The goal is remarkably close. After a quarter century of eradication efforts the number of cases has fallen more than 99 per cent – from 350,000 in 1988 to 223 in 2012. So far this year – up to 9 April – there have been 18 cases.
There are just three countries remaining where the disease is still endemic – Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria – compared with 125 in 1988.
But there remain huge barriers. The global eradication effort has already missed four deadlines for elimination of the disease – often because funds fell short and polio resurged.
At a briefing in London, experts said 90 per cent of the funding for the first year of  the programme was already in place, but a further $2bn was required in later years.
“We need to get the money upfront so that the programme can run unhampered,” said Jay Wenger, director at the Gates Foundation.
In the mid-2000s, an outbreak of polio in Nigeria spread across West Africa, re-infecting countries that had previously eliminated the disease. “That cost half a billion dollars to put right,” Dr Wenger said.
The other major threat to the success of the programme is security: 23 clinic workers were shot dead in Pakistan and Nigeria between December and January by terrorists who believed the vaccination programme was part of an American plot. David Heymann, chair of Public Health England, said: “Eliminating the last 1 per cent of cases is an immense challenge. But by working together we can make history.”

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Sep 17, 2013

Indianapolis, Lilly Played Key Role in Ending U.S. Polio Epidemics

Guest contributor- Olivia DePaulis
You Are There 1955: Ending Polio will be open at the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Indiana History Center, located at 450 W. Ohio St. in Indianapolis until Saturday, Sept. 14, 2013.  Mention you read this HistoricIndianapolis.comarticle at the Welcome Center and receive free admission through Saturday, September 14, 2013. For more information about Indiana Historical Society and the Indiana Experience, call (317) 232-1882 or visit www.indianahistory.org.
During the 20th century, polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the United States.  Annual epidemics became increasingly more devastating, paralyzing and killing thousands of children every year.  During this time, many efforts were focused on combating the epidemic, but there was little success until Dr. Jonas Salk discovered a vaccine that showed promise toward preventing polio in exposed patients.
Polio Vaccine
In 1954, The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) embarked on a massive effort to pay for the cost of testing and producing Salk’s vaccine at one Canadian and five U.S. pharmaceutical companies. Eli Lilly and Company was one of those that began mass production of Salk’s vaccine in anticipation of the trials and their successful results.The clinical trial itself was a major undertaking, involving more than one million children.  Eight Indiana counties with the highest outbreak rates were involved, including Allen, Delaware, Elkhart, Howard, St. Joseph, Tippecanoe and Vanderburgh.  The massive effort involved Americans at all levels of society from President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a polio patient himself and founder of NFIP, to the many employees at Eli Lilly and Company who were working furiously to rush the lifesaving vaccine to the public.The Indiana Historical Society invites guests to step into this crucial moment in history in the Indiana Experience exhibit, “You Are There 1955: Ending Polio.”  Visitors get to become part of the action as Eli Lilly and Co. employees work to pack vials of Salk’s polio vaccine that will be eventually be shipped to devastated communities nationwide.  Visitors have a chance to interact with assembly line workers and learn how this Indianapolis company helped stem the tide of the polio epidemic in America.
YAT_Lilly_email
The exhibit is based on a photograph (above) taken on March 16, 1955, in Building 314 on the Eli Lilly and Co. campus, which shows workers packing vials of the vaccine and preparing them for shipment to the anxiously awaiting public.  Two of the women pictured in the photograph, Janie Berry and Dorothy Redden, played a major part in making the exhibit come to life by sharing their experiences with IHS researchers.For these two former Lilly employees, a moment that now stands as a major historical turning point, was just a job, and one that they did each day for years in decade-spanning careers working at “Lilly’s.”  “We just knew it had to get it out, that it was a priority,” said Berry. Having Janie Berry and Dorothy Redden as resources for the creation of the exhibit allows visitors to experience this major medical breakthrough through the eyes of two employees who were actually there.This article and a small portion of this website is sponsored by the Indiana Historical SocietyPost Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Sep 16, 2013

Hepatitis B vaccine instead of Polio drops: Mamata orders probe


“The chief minister has ordered an inquiry into the incident,” state’s director of health services B Satpathy told PTI here.
Mr. Satpathy said that an apparent negligence was detected in the matter which led to the suspension of four health workers, but the wrong administration of Hepatitis B vaccine had no adverse impact on the children who were discharged from Arambagh sub-divisional hospital today.
While a Hooghly report quoting official sources said that 114 children were admitted to the hospital, Satpathy said that 67 kids were rushed to hospital after it was detected they were given Hepatitis B vaccine instead of pulse polio drops at the camp by mistake.Mr. Satpathy said that 14 other children were later taken to the hospital as their parents became panicky after hearing that many kids were given “wrong drops“.He said that the suspended persons included a supervisor who reached the camp late and he was in charge of distribution.
Admitting that the incident had created panic among the villagers, Satpathy said a team of health department personnel, including doctors, was sent to the houses of the affected children “and all of them were found to be in good condition“.He said that Hepatitis B vaccine is injectable, “but it has no adverse effect on health when administered orally“.Mr. Satpathy described the incident as “unfortunate and unwarranted“.On Sunday was a pulse polio day, so parents had taken their children to the polio booth at the Khatul village under Arambagh sub-divison, the sources said.They said that the wrong administration was detected by one of the parents who immediately informed the matter to the health workers and the villagers, but by then most of the children had already been given the Hepatitis B vaccine orally.Angry villagers then locked up the health workers and the local Block Development Officer (BDO) and the Sub-Divisional Officer (SDO) Arambagh who rushed to the spot to pacify them.Hooghly District Magistrate Manmeet Nanda said two others, including an anganwadi worker, were suspended. Fuente
Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Sep 15, 2013

Therapeutic exercise for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease


Dal Bello-Haas V, Florence JM
Published Online:
May 31, 2013

- See more at: http://summaries.cochrane.org/CD005229/therapeutic-exercise-for-people-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-or-motor-neuron-disease#sthash.ZAITHFVB.dpuf
Muscle weakness is very common in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is also known as motor neuron disease (MND). A weak muscle can be damaged if overworked because it is already functioning close to its maximal limits. Because of this, some experts have discouraged exercise programs for people with ALS. However, if a person with ALS is not active, deconditioning (loss of muscle performance) and weakness from lack of use occurs, on top of the deconditioning and weakness caused by the disease itself. If the reduced level of activity persists, many organ systems can be affected and a person with ALS can develop further deconditioning and muscle weakness, and muscle and joint tightness may occur leading to contractures (abnormal distortion and shortening of muscles) and pain. These all make daily activities harder to do. This review found only two randomised studies of exercise in people with ALS. The trials compared an exercise program with usual care (stretching exercises). Combining the results from the two trials (43 participants), exercise produced a greater average improvement in function (measured using an ALS-specific measurement scale) than usual care. There were no other differences between the two groups. There were no reported adverse events due to exercise. The studies were too small to determine to what extent exercise for people with ALS is beneficial or whether exercise is harmful. We found no new trials when we updated the searches in 2012. More research is needed.
- See more at: 
Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

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