Sep 18, 2013

Three-dimensional structure of Poliovirus receptor bound to Poliovirus




a) “Road map” representations (3637) of poliovirus (Left) and rhinovirus-14 [Right; (33)]. The corresponding triangular area of the capsid surface, bounded by a 5-fold and two 3-fold icosahedral symmetry axes, is marked (Inset). The radial distances of surface residues from the virion center are color coded and contoured [see key (Top Right)]. Nomenclature: 3145, residue 145 of VP3. The receptor footprints are shown in white. (b) A ribbon diagram (38) of the sPvr model is flanked by two views (39) of a single sPvr molecule as portrayed in the cryoelectron microscopy density map (white cage), enclosing the model of the three sPvr domains, d1 (cyan), d2 (orange), and d3 (violet). Carbohydrates attached to d2 [to N188(Left) and N237 (Right)] and possibly to d1 are shown in brown. Also shown are the capsid proteins VP1 (blue), VP2 (yellow), VP3 (red), and VP4 (green). The tunnel beneath the sPvr-binding site is evident (white arrows). “Pocket factor” is magenta. (c) The sPvr sequence is mapped onto secondary structural elements of the homology model. Asn residues thought to be glycosylated are marked with asterisks. (d) Ribbon diagram (38) showing the docking of the sPvr model onto the capsid surface. Same color conventions as in b. The axes allow this view to be related to Fig.4. (e) Schematic diagram showing a possible binding configuration of poliovirus with intact membrane-bound Pvr.http://www.pnas.org/content/97/1/73.longFig.4.

The End of Polio by 2018 – unless the funding dries up



More than 400 eminent scientists from 80 countries around the world have announced their backing for an ambitious global plan to eradicate polio, a disease that once paralysed and killed millions.
Despite security threats and doubts about funding, scientists say the aim of ending polio so that “no child will ever again be crippled by this disease” is achievable.
Launching the Scientific Declaration on Polio Eradication, they called on governments, international organisations and philanthropic individuals to fund the $5.5bn (£3.5bn) cost of eliminating the few remaining cases of polio and end transmission of the disease by 2014, so that the world may be declared polio-free in 2018.
The goal is remarkably close. After a quarter century of eradication efforts the number of cases has fallen more than 99 per cent – from 350,000 in 1988 to 223 in 2012. So far this year – up to 9 April – there have been 18 cases.
There are just three countries remaining where the disease is still endemic – Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria – compared with 125 in 1988.
But there remain huge barriers. The global eradication effort has already missed four deadlines for elimination of the disease – often because funds fell short and polio resurged.
At a briefing in London, experts said 90 per cent of the funding for the first year of  the programme was already in place, but a further $2bn was required in later years.
“We need to get the money upfront so that the programme can run unhampered,” said Jay Wenger, director at the Gates Foundation.
In the mid-2000s, an outbreak of polio in Nigeria spread across West Africa, re-infecting countries that had previously eliminated the disease. “That cost half a billion dollars to put right,” Dr Wenger said.
The other major threat to the success of the programme is security: 23 clinic workers were shot dead in Pakistan and Nigeria between December and January by terrorists who believed the vaccination programme was part of an American plot. David Heymann, chair of Public Health England, said: “Eliminating the last 1 per cent of cases is an immense challenge. But by working together we can make history.”

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Sep 17, 2013

Indianapolis, Lilly Played Key Role in Ending U.S. Polio Epidemics

Guest contributor- Olivia DePaulis
You Are There 1955: Ending Polio will be open at the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Indiana History Center, located at 450 W. Ohio St. in Indianapolis until Saturday, Sept. 14, 2013.  Mention you read this HistoricIndianapolis.comarticle at the Welcome Center and receive free admission through Saturday, September 14, 2013. For more information about Indiana Historical Society and the Indiana Experience, call (317) 232-1882 or visit www.indianahistory.org.
During the 20th century, polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the United States.  Annual epidemics became increasingly more devastating, paralyzing and killing thousands of children every year.  During this time, many efforts were focused on combating the epidemic, but there was little success until Dr. Jonas Salk discovered a vaccine that showed promise toward preventing polio in exposed patients.
Polio Vaccine
In 1954, The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (NFIP) embarked on a massive effort to pay for the cost of testing and producing Salk’s vaccine at one Canadian and five U.S. pharmaceutical companies. Eli Lilly and Company was one of those that began mass production of Salk’s vaccine in anticipation of the trials and their successful results.The clinical trial itself was a major undertaking, involving more than one million children.  Eight Indiana counties with the highest outbreak rates were involved, including Allen, Delaware, Elkhart, Howard, St. Joseph, Tippecanoe and Vanderburgh.  The massive effort involved Americans at all levels of society from President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a polio patient himself and founder of NFIP, to the many employees at Eli Lilly and Company who were working furiously to rush the lifesaving vaccine to the public.The Indiana Historical Society invites guests to step into this crucial moment in history in the Indiana Experience exhibit, “You Are There 1955: Ending Polio.”  Visitors get to become part of the action as Eli Lilly and Co. employees work to pack vials of Salk’s polio vaccine that will be eventually be shipped to devastated communities nationwide.  Visitors have a chance to interact with assembly line workers and learn how this Indianapolis company helped stem the tide of the polio epidemic in America.
YAT_Lilly_email
The exhibit is based on a photograph (above) taken on March 16, 1955, in Building 314 on the Eli Lilly and Co. campus, which shows workers packing vials of the vaccine and preparing them for shipment to the anxiously awaiting public.  Two of the women pictured in the photograph, Janie Berry and Dorothy Redden, played a major part in making the exhibit come to life by sharing their experiences with IHS researchers.For these two former Lilly employees, a moment that now stands as a major historical turning point, was just a job, and one that they did each day for years in decade-spanning careers working at “Lilly’s.”  “We just knew it had to get it out, that it was a priority,” said Berry. Having Janie Berry and Dorothy Redden as resources for the creation of the exhibit allows visitors to experience this major medical breakthrough through the eyes of two employees who were actually there.This article and a small portion of this website is sponsored by the Indiana Historical SocietyPost Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

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