3/19/2015

Polio this week as of 18 March 2015


Polio this week as of 18 March 2015 
  • As per risk assessment criteria set by the International Health Regulations (IHR) Emergency Committee on the international spread of wild poliovirus, Syria and Ethiopia have now been re-classified as countries ‘no longer infected by wild poliovirus, but which remain vulnerable to international spread’, following no detection of wild poliovirus in more than 12 months. More

  • In Pakistan, efforts are continuing to tighten up strategies and ensure implementation of the ‘low season’ emergency operations plan. Strong coordination of activities by Emergency Operations Centres (EOCs) at federal and provincial level is helping to evaluate implementation and enable corrective measures as necessary. See ‘Pakistan’ section below for more. 


        

      Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases
      Total cases
      Year-to-date 2015
      Year-to-date 2014
      Total in 2014 
      WPV
       cVDPV
       WPV
       cVDPV
       WPV
       cVDPV
      Globally
      20
      0
      37
      5
      359
      54 
      - in endemic countries 
      20
       0
      33
      5
      340
       51
      - in non-endemic countries 
      0
       0
      4
       0
      19
       3
        

      Case breakdown by country

      Countries
      Year-to-date 2015
      Year-to-date 2014
      Total in
       2014
      Onset of paralysis of  most  
       recent case
      WPV
      cVDPV 
      WPV 
      cVDPV
       WPV
      cVDPV 
       WPV
       cVDPV
      Pakistan19029430621 24-Feb-1513-Dec-14 
      Afghanistan132821-Jan-15N/A 
      Nigeria001630 24-Jul-1416-Nov-14 
      Somalia00 0511-Aug-14N/A 
      Equatorial Guinea0 01 05003-May-14N/A 
      Iraq00 02007-Apr-14N/A 
      Cameroon03 0509-Jul-14N/A 
      Syrian Arab Republic001021-Jan-14N/A 
      Ethiopia001005-Jan-14N/A 
      South Sudan 0 0 0 0N/A 12-Sep-14 
      Madagascar 0 0N/A 29-Sep-14 
        Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. cVDPV is associated with ≥ 2 AFP cases or non-household contacts. VDPV2 cases with ≥ 6 (≥ 10 for type1) nucleotides difference from Sabin in VP1 are reported here.

      Afghanistan

      • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 January in Reg district of Hilmand province. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 remains 28, and 1 for 2015. Most of the cases from 2014 were linked to cross-border transmission with neighbouring Pakistan. 
      • Two WPV1 positive environmental samples were confirmed this week, from Hilmand and Kandahar (dates of collection: 25 and 26 January), confirming ongoing circulation of the virus in the country. 

      Nigeria

      • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6. No cases have been reported in 2015. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state. 
      • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 16 November in Barde Local Governmental Area of Yobe state. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria remains 30. 

      Pakistan

      • Three new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week, one from Khyber in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and two from Sindh, bringing the total number of WPV1 cases to 19 in 2015. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 February (from Khyber, FATA). The total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 remains 306. 
      • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December. The number of cVDPV cases reported in 2014 remains 21. 
      • Efforts are ongoing to strengthen implementation of the ‘low season’ emergency operations plan. 
      • Strong, functional Emergency Operations Centres (EOCs) are now operational both at the federal and provincial. 
      • Strategies are focusing on clearly identifying reasons for missed children, and putting in place area-specific mechanisms to overcome area-specific challenges. 
      • Independent monitoring is strengthened and rolled out across wider geographic areas to provide a clearer assessment of quality and associated gaps. 
      • Activities are focusing on known infected areas, but also areas deemed at high-risk but which have not reported polio cases. Environmental surveillance indicates widespread transmission of the virus, not just in known infected areas but also in areas without cases. Environmental surveillance is proving to be an instrumental supplemental surveillance tool enabling a clearer epidemiological picture.  

        Central Africa

        • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the last week. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. Over 8 months have passed since the last WPV1 case had onset of paralysis in central Africa (in Cameroon, onset of paralysis on 9 July). 
        • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Chad and Gabon, and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Cameroon in March. In April, NIDs are scheduled in Equatorial Guinea and Chad, staggered NIDs in Central African Republic, and a SNID in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.   

        Horn of Africa

        • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia. The total number of WPV1 cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 in Somalia. 
        • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the last week. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan. 
        • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in South Sudan from 24 – 27 March. Supplementary Immunization Activities are planned in Somalia and NIDs in Yemen (30 March to 2 April). Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are also planned in Ethiopia and Somalia in March and in Kenya, Sudan and Ethiopia in April. 

        Israel and West Bank and Gaza

        • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip for more than 11 months. The most recent WPV positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March 2014. All environmental samples collected since April have been negative for WPV.

        Middle East

        • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria. 
        • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April. 
        • Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region. 

        West Africa

        • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012. 
        • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa help to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio to create a buffer zone surrounding the affected countries. The Ebola crisis in western Africa continues to have an impact on the implementation of polio eradication activities in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. Twenty two surveillance medical officers from the National Polio Surveillance Programme (NPSP) in India have been deployed for 3 months to strengthen surveillance systems and data collection for the Ebola response, demonstrating the polio legacy in action. Read more
        • On 10 – 13 April, National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger and Senegal. NIDs are planned for the three Ebola-affected countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone in April and May.

        - See more at: http://www.polioeradication.org/Dataandmonitoring/Poliothisweek.aspx#sthash.cdZ5w3j1.dpuf

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