2/27/2017

These NASA Satellite Images Show the Stunning Toll of Climate Change


By Joe McCarthy|

Ice avalanche in Tibet’s Aru Range
NASA
Climate change rarely transforms an environment overnight. By the time ice shelves disappear, ocean waves creep onto main streets, and forests shrivel, the forces of climate change have been at work for decades. 
Fortunately, NASA is tracking these environmental changes with satellites so that the public knows the full scale of transformations taking place. From one month to the next, an environmental change might seem slight, but when you zoom out to the level of years and decades, the combined shifts paint a devastating portrait. Of course, there are also sudden, dramatic events like flash floods that overwhelm a region overnight. But these, too, are the result of weather patterns that have morphed over decades.   
Here are seven transformations that NASA has captured. 

Melting Arctic Ice

September, 1984
Older, thicker Arctic sea ice declinesImage: NASA
September, 2016
Older, thicker Arctic ice declines -- 2016Image: NASA

Fire Damage in Yellowstone National Park

October 10, 1987
Yellowstone National Park / NASAImage: NASA
June 17, 2016
Fire Damage in Yellowstone National ParkImage: NASA

Early Ice Melt in Greenland

June 10, 2014
Greenland IceImage: NASA
June 15, 2016
Ice melt in GreenlandImage: NASA

Sea-Ice Breakup in Beaufort Sea, Arctic

April 13, 2015
Sea ice break-up in ArcticImage: NASA
April 15, 2016
Sea ice break-up in ArcticImage: NASA

Coal Mine Growth in Powder River Basin, Wyoming

June 29, 1984
Coal mines in Wyoming
June 21, 2016
Coal mines in Wyoming - 2016Image: NASA

Flooding in Yangtze River Basin, China

March 27, 2016
Screen Shot 2017-01-05 at 9.43.04 AM.png
July 28, 2016
Ganges River In IndiaImage: NASA

Flooding on the Ganges River, India

August 10, 2015
Screen Shot 2017-01-05 at 9.52.01 AM.png
August 15, 2016
Satellite view of Ganges River in IndiaImage: NASA

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

The Polio Crusade

THE POLIO CRUSADE IN AMERICAN EXPERIENCE A GOOD VIDEO THE STORY OF THE POLIO CRUSADE pays tribute to a time when Americans banded together to conquer a terrible disease. The medical breakthrough saved countless lives and had a pervasive impact on American philanthropy that ... Continue reading..http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/polio/

Erradicación de La poliomielitis

Polio Tricisilla Adaptada

March Of Dimes Polio History

Dr. Bruno

video

movie

movie2

A 41-year-old man developed an acute illness at the age of 9 months during which, following a viral illness with headache, he developed severe weakness and wasting of the limbs of the left side. After several months he began to recover, such that he was able to walk at the age of 2 years and later was able to run, although he was never very good at sports. He had stable function until the age of 18 when he began to notice greater than usual difficulty lifting heavy objects. By the age of 25 he was noticing progressive difficulty walking due to weakness of both legs, and he noticed that the right calf had become larger. The symptoms became more noticeable over the course of the next 10 years and ultimately both upper as well as both lower limbs had become noticeably weaker.

On examination there was wasting of the muscles of upper and lower limbs on the left, and massively hypertrophied gastrocnemius, soleus and tensor fascia late on the right. The calf circumference on the right exceeded that on the left by 10 cm (figure1). The right shoulder girdle, triceps, thenar eminence and small muscles of the hand were wasted and there was winging of both scapulae. The right quadriceps was also wasted. The wasted muscles were also weak but the hypertrophied right ankle plantar flexors had normal power. The tendon reflexes were absent in the lower limbs and present in the upper limbs, although the right triceps was reduced. The remainder of the examination was normal.

Figure 1

The patient's legs, showing massive enlargement of the right calf and wasting on the left

Questions

1
What is that nature of the acute illness in infancy?
2
What is the nature of the subsequent deterioration?
3
What investigations should be performed?
4
What is the differential diagnosis of the cause of the progressive calf hypertrophy?

Answers

QUESTION 1

An acute paralytic illness which follows symptoms of a viral infection with or without signs of meningitis is typical of poliomyelitis. Usually caused by one of the three polio viruses, it may also occur following vaccination and following infections with other enteroviruses.1 Other disorders which would cause a similar syndrome but with upper motor neurone signs would include acute vascular lesions, meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

QUESTION 2

A progressive functional deterioration many years after paralytic poliomyelitis is well known, although its pathogenesis is not fully understood.2 It is a diagnosis of exclusion; a careful search for alternative causes, for example, orthopaedic deformities such as osteoarthritis or worsening scoliosis, superimposed neurological disorders such as entrapment neuropathies or coincidental muscle disease or neuropathy, and general medical causes such as respiratory complications and endocrinopathies.3

QUESTION 3

Investigations revealed normal blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and normal biochemistry apart from a raised creatine kinase at 330 IU/l (normal range 60–120 IU/l), which is commonly seen in cases of ongoing denervation. Electromyography showed evidence of denervation in the right APB and FDI with polyphasic motor units and complex repetitive discharges, no spontaneous activity in the left calf and large polyphasic units in the right calf consistent with chronic partial denervation. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were normal. A lumbar myelogram was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the calves is shown in figure2.

Figure 2

Axial T1 weighted MRI scan (TR 588 ms, TE 15 ms) of the calves, showing gross muscle atrophy and replacement by adipose tissue on the left, and hypertrophy of the muscles on the right, with only minor adipose tissue deposition

QUESTION 4

The differential diagnosis of the progressive calf hypertrophy is given in the box.

Causes of calf muscle hypertrophy

Chronic partial denervation

  • radiculopathy

  • peripheral neuropathy

  • hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy

  • spinal muscular atrophy

  • following paralytic poliomyelitis

    Neuromyotonia and myokymia

  • Isaac's syndrome

  • generalised myokymia

  • neurotonia

  • continuous muscle fibre activity due to: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy, Guillain Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, thymoma, thyrotoxicosis, thyroiditis

    Muscular dystrophies

    Myositis

    Infiltration

  • tumours

  • amyloidosis

  • cysticercosis

    Link here