4/03/2017

Frida Kahlo Infiltrates the Snapchat Generation with a New Set of Emoji




Of the 143 paintings that Frida Kahlo produced in her lifetime, 55 are self-portraits. They show the radical Mexican artist experiencing a vertiginous rollercoaster of emotions: anguish, resilience, heartache, self-doubt, and passion. They’re also the inspiration behind a new set of 160 emoji—dubbed FridaMoji—that hit the App Store this month.
“Frida was just perfect for the project,” says Sam Cantor, the Los Angeles-based gallerist and graphic designer behind FridaMoji. “She conveyed her emotions so honestly and openly in her work. What better artist to translate into emoji, which we use to express emotion today?”
Cantor designed his first Kahlo-inspired emoji last summer. The Instagram account for Cantor Fine Art, the gallery he runs with his father, was attracting a growing number of followers, and Cantor wanted to engage them. His strategy: to canvas his audience with a simple question. “If I were to make emoji of artists, who would you want to see?”
“I was shocked how quickly answers streamed in,” says Cantor. Requests for Andy WarholJean-Michel BasquiatYayoi Kusama, and van Goghglutted his inbox. So he got to work, using the graphic design and art direction chops he’d sharpened during his years working for powerhouse advertising agency Wieden+Kennedy. He released them one at a time on Cantor Fine Art’s feed. And while all of his creations whipped up excitement, it was Cantor’s Frida Kahlo emoji that “was by far and away the most successful,” he remembers.

It tweaked the classic “woman” emoji by adding a crown of flowers, made from the “hibiscus” and “cherry blossom” icons, the “monkey” emoji, and a unibrow. It was unmistakably Kahlo, and likes streamed in. So did emails from top-tier museums, artist foundations, and Japanese and Korean emoji companies asking to partner with Cantor on the project—and expand it.
One conversation, with the Frida Kahlo Corporation (the entity which “owns the rights to the brand name Frida Kahlo World Wide,” according to its website), began to develop more quickly than the rest. In talking with Cantor, Beatriz Alvarado of the Frida Kahlo Corporation realized they shared the same vision for Kahlo’s legacy: “We both wanted to channel her voice into everyday life—and, in particular, to connect millennials and centennials to her work,” she explains. “Working with new technologies, like emoji, felt like a powerful way to do that.”
It was an ambitious goal, and not without challenges. First and foremost, Cantor and Alvarado faced a design problem: How do you communicate the complexity of such a multifaceted life and body of work into the regimented, graphic language of emoji? Or, as Cantor put it, “How do we express that Frida is more than just a unibrow and a flower crown?” First, Alvarado suggested iconic paintings that could be used as inspiration. Then Cantor began to pour the majority of his time into studying the intricacies of Kahlo’s aesthetic and artistic animus.
His research culminated in a trip to Mexico City, where he spent two weeks studying Kahlo’s paintings in person. The first canvas Cantor saw was Las Dos Fridas (1939), Kahlo’s famed double portrait that she painted after her divorce from Diego Rivera, the behemoth Mexican muralist with whom she had a tumultuous relationship. “The intensity of the emotions on their faces, and how many ways they could be read or stretched to tell different stories, really struck me,” Cantor says. “That was a turning point.”


Cantor became obsessed with Kahlo’s work, as he’ll readily admit: “I now count myself among the Frida maniacs,” he laughs. And soon, he’d designed 400 emoji based on Frida’s paintings, her life, and scholarship written about her. Of those initial designs, 160 made Alvarado’s cut. Some were discarded for aesthetic reasons, others because of issues surrounding artists’ estates. Cantor was most disappointed to see the emoji that combined imagery of Kahlo and Rivera go. But coordinating rights with Rivera’s estate would have prolonged the process.
The next step was distribution. The early emojis Cantor designed were individual images that weren’t compatible with iMessage. He needed to create an app, and a subsidiary of the Korean messaging service Kakao Talk offered to help. But, according to Cantor, in the process of strategizing around distribution, Kakao Talk insisted that Korea have an exclusive on the Kahlo emoji. “Our main goal was to make Frida’s work accessible to as many people as possible,” says Cantor. “So we had to pull away.” So, with the help of a developer, he began building the app from scratch.
This month, FridaMoji became available through Apple’s App Store. Now, Kahlo lovers and fans of expressive emoji everywhere can download the app and start sending icons inspired by Kahlo’s many emotions. One shows an anguished Kahlo, surrounded by a tangle of thorns, based on Self-Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird (1940). Another shows Kahlo dressed as a man with freshly cropped hair, based on Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair (1940). And another shows her happily attached to a monkey, based on Self-Portrait with Monkeys (1943).

While anticipation has bolstered the FridaMoji release, there have been some dissenters, too. “Some people think that Frida wouldn’t be happy with this approach,” Alvarado explains. “But Frida’s own spirit of reinvention is what we tried to channel through the emoji. We want to express that Frida and her work represent change, free will, self-expression, and individuality, and I can’t imagine that she would have objected to that.”
There is a page in Frida Kahlo’s diary that, in this writer’s opinion, supports Alvarado’s hypothesis. On it, Kahlo drew pared-down likenesses of her own face, displaying different emotions. Each is encircled by rings resembling bubbles, so that they suggest hand-drawn cousins of contemporary emoji. Writer Carlos Fuentes, in his commentary on Kahlo’s published diaries, wrote of the page: “Through the act of painting Kahlo established herself as an artist, and her many self-portraits are manifestations of her need to demonstrate the various aspects of herself.”
Cantor and the Frida Kahlo Corporation’s FridaMoji aims to engage a new generation with this integral aspect of Kahlo’s work—and, hopefully, to beckon them toward learning about her life, paintings, and legacy in the process.

—Alexxa Gotthardt

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

The Polio Crusade

THE POLIO CRUSADE IN AMERICAN EXPERIENCE A GOOD VIDEO THE STORY OF THE POLIO CRUSADE pays tribute to a time when Americans banded together to conquer a terrible disease. The medical breakthrough saved countless lives and had a pervasive impact on American philanthropy that ... Continue reading..http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/polio/

Erradicación de La poliomielitis

Polio Tricisilla Adaptada

March Of Dimes Polio History

Dr. Bruno

video

movie

movie2

A 41-year-old man developed an acute illness at the age of 9 months during which, following a viral illness with headache, he developed severe weakness and wasting of the limbs of the left side. After several months he began to recover, such that he was able to walk at the age of 2 years and later was able to run, although he was never very good at sports. He had stable function until the age of 18 when he began to notice greater than usual difficulty lifting heavy objects. By the age of 25 he was noticing progressive difficulty walking due to weakness of both legs, and he noticed that the right calf had become larger. The symptoms became more noticeable over the course of the next 10 years and ultimately both upper as well as both lower limbs had become noticeably weaker.

On examination there was wasting of the muscles of upper and lower limbs on the left, and massively hypertrophied gastrocnemius, soleus and tensor fascia late on the right. The calf circumference on the right exceeded that on the left by 10 cm (figure1). The right shoulder girdle, triceps, thenar eminence and small muscles of the hand were wasted and there was winging of both scapulae. The right quadriceps was also wasted. The wasted muscles were also weak but the hypertrophied right ankle plantar flexors had normal power. The tendon reflexes were absent in the lower limbs and present in the upper limbs, although the right triceps was reduced. The remainder of the examination was normal.

Figure 1

The patient's legs, showing massive enlargement of the right calf and wasting on the left

Questions

1
What is that nature of the acute illness in infancy?
2
What is the nature of the subsequent deterioration?
3
What investigations should be performed?
4
What is the differential diagnosis of the cause of the progressive calf hypertrophy?

Answers

QUESTION 1

An acute paralytic illness which follows symptoms of a viral infection with or without signs of meningitis is typical of poliomyelitis. Usually caused by one of the three polio viruses, it may also occur following vaccination and following infections with other enteroviruses.1 Other disorders which would cause a similar syndrome but with upper motor neurone signs would include acute vascular lesions, meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

QUESTION 2

A progressive functional deterioration many years after paralytic poliomyelitis is well known, although its pathogenesis is not fully understood.2 It is a diagnosis of exclusion; a careful search for alternative causes, for example, orthopaedic deformities such as osteoarthritis or worsening scoliosis, superimposed neurological disorders such as entrapment neuropathies or coincidental muscle disease or neuropathy, and general medical causes such as respiratory complications and endocrinopathies.3

QUESTION 3

Investigations revealed normal blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and normal biochemistry apart from a raised creatine kinase at 330 IU/l (normal range 60–120 IU/l), which is commonly seen in cases of ongoing denervation. Electromyography showed evidence of denervation in the right APB and FDI with polyphasic motor units and complex repetitive discharges, no spontaneous activity in the left calf and large polyphasic units in the right calf consistent with chronic partial denervation. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were normal. A lumbar myelogram was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the calves is shown in figure2.

Figure 2

Axial T1 weighted MRI scan (TR 588 ms, TE 15 ms) of the calves, showing gross muscle atrophy and replacement by adipose tissue on the left, and hypertrophy of the muscles on the right, with only minor adipose tissue deposition

QUESTION 4

The differential diagnosis of the progressive calf hypertrophy is given in the box.

Causes of calf muscle hypertrophy

Chronic partial denervation

  • radiculopathy

  • peripheral neuropathy

  • hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy

  • spinal muscular atrophy

  • following paralytic poliomyelitis

    Neuromyotonia and myokymia

  • Isaac's syndrome

  • generalised myokymia

  • neurotonia

  • continuous muscle fibre activity due to: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy, Guillain Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, thymoma, thyrotoxicosis, thyroiditis

    Muscular dystrophies

    Myositis

    Infiltration

  • tumours

  • amyloidosis

  • cysticercosis

    Link here