10 feb. 2017

UK Scientists Just Made a Major Breakthrough With the Polio Vaccine

CDC Global/flickr
Scientists at the University of Leeds in England have developed a new polio vaccine that is far safer to produce than current methods.
Vaccines made from “virus-like-particles” (VLPs) have been successful against hepatitis B and HPV, but have not been stable enough for polio vaccines. As a result, polio vaccines have been produced by growing, and then chemically destroying, large amounts of the virus. Though effective, the process is potentially dangerous in that the virus could escape into the environment.
But that is about to change. Researchers have now discovered mutations in VPLs that are stable enough to be used for polio vaccines, thus eliminating the dangers of creating a live virus.
Polio is 99.99% eradicated worldwide, but scientists maintain vaccination must continue even after the disease is wiped out. Vaccines produced by the new VPL method will replace the old ones once that happens.
“Continuing to vaccinate after polio has been eradicated is essential to ensure against the disease recurring, but there are significant biosafety concerns about current production methods,” David Rowlands, a Leeds University professor and co-author of the study said in a press release. “Our new method of creating the vaccine has been proven to work in lab conditions and on top of that we’ve proved it’s actually more stable than existing vaccines.”
Nigeria proves Rowlands’ warning about the disease recurring. The nation was declared polio free by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2014, but confirmed three more cases in 2016.
India was also declared polio free in 2014 but saw a resurgence in the disease last summer. Health officials had to respond with mass vaccinations in the southern state of Telangana.
Afghanistan and Pakistan are the only other nations with polio cases. The former had 13 cases of polio in 2016, while the latter had 20.    
In terms of foreign aid, Canada has been a world leader, devoting CAN $250 million in 2013 towards wiping out the disease worldwide. The WHO has been active as well, funding this latest research via a $1.5 million grant. Humanitarian efforts have been tremendously successful, but the fight isn’t over yet.  
According to the WHO website, “as long as a single child remains infected, children in all countries are at risk of contracting polio. Failure to eradicate polio from these last remaining strongholds could result in as many as 200,000 new cases every year.”
Professor Nicola Stonehouse, a Leeds University professor co-author of the study, believes the next step is mass production: “Further research is needed to refine them more but we are confident they will work for all three forms of polio. After that, we need to find a way to manufacture them cost effectively on a large scale.”
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Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

For Many Refugees, Trump’s Travel Ban Is a Death Sentence

President Trump’s temporary travel ban and promised “extreme vetting” of seven Muslim-majority countries and all refugees means the difference between life and death for people like 38-year-old Somalian, Momina Hassan Aden, whose resettlement has been indefinitely put on hold. Widower and mother of seven, she had spent the last four years at the Kakuma Refugee Camp, and recently had a blood transfusion. Her medical condition, which is unknown, calls for medical treatment in the US.
She is weak and at risk of being sent back to the overpopulated camp in northwestern Kenya. There, she would start from zero to wait for a card that entitles her and her family to food rations. “There’s not enough health care for me there,” she said in a brief interview at the Nairobi transit center, according to The Washington Post.
Aden is not the only one whose health has been compromised by the ban.
As a matter of fact, hers is one of 2,000 cases in sub-Saharan Africa that are deemed “most vulnerable,” according to the Church World Service. These are the candidates with critical medical conditions, as well as the survivors of physical and psychological trauma.
On Monday, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees said that as many as 20,000 refugees in precarious conditions would be banned from traveling to the US under the 120-day suspension that was announced Friday. Syrians, meanwhile, have been banned indefinitely.
“These are very, very ill patients,” Pamela Paulk, president of Johns Hopkins Medicine International (JHI), told STAT. “In most cases, these are not cases to be postponed.”
JHI is one of the several leading medical centers who were preparing to receive over 30 patients in dire condition from the affected countries. Most cases, which are time-sensitive, were to be seen within the next 90 days.
“It’s always health care they can’t get in their country,” said Paulk, who was attending a medical conference in the United Arab Emirates, as reported by Stat. “They’re just not able to do the same things we can do in the US.”
These health problems require extremely challenging intervention. Neurosurgery, complex spine surgery, and bone marrow transplants are just a few of the procedures that are called for.
Against all odds, organizations like Doctors Without Borders have said that they will continue to try to provide care to displaced people. They, along with the Church World Service, religious leaders, and countless others, have denounced the suspension and have called for it to be lifted.

“When you’re talking about a 9-year-old with congenital heart problems, a [delay of a] day is too long,” said Sarah Krause, the senior director of Church World Service’s immigration and refugee program. “It is unnecessary for these individuals to die while waiting for resettlement.”
From another angle, the ban has serious implications for the future of the US’s medical community.
The 2016 Main Residency Match found that 21 percent of international medical graduates were not US citizens. Although there is no data on the country of origin of US doctors, a report by ECFMG and the National Resident Matching Program found that in 2013 alone 753 applicants were from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, or Syria.
40 percent of them were matched into a US-based residency program.
For Suha Abushamma, 26-year-old doctor at the Cleveland Clinic, it was a race against time. Originally from Sudan, Abusshamma is an H-1B visa holder. Her flight landed from Saudi Arabia right after the executive order.
Hours later, according to ProPublica, she was sent back after facing three options: withdrawing her visa, voluntarily leaving, or facing deportation. Despite the fact that the Brooklyn Federal Courthouse was proceeding with her her hearing, Abushamma was denied the possibility of delaying her flight.
“I’m only in this country to be a doctor, to work and to help people — that’s it,” she told ProPublica. “There’s no other reason.”
The ban has raised concern within the American Medical Association, the largest association of physicians that represent medical doctors across the country. As reported by CNN, the association wrote a letter to the Department of Homeland Security on Wednesday that asked for clarification on the visa ban.
A part of the letter read: “it is vitally important that this process does not impact patient access to timely medical treatment or restrict physicians and international medical graduates (IMGs) who have been granted visas to train, practice in the United States.”
Those seeking refuge in the US, those in dire need of medical attention, share the very same concerns about security and safety that Americans have. They themselves have faced the unimaginable: war, disease, oppression, persecution, and terrorism.  
“Refugees are mothers and fathers and children who want what we all want: a safe place to live their lives, free from war and persecution,” said Jason Cone, the executive director of Doctors Without Borders. “They are refugees because of forces beyond their control.”
For decades, the US has been a leader in refugee protection, a tradition ingrained in the professed values of the American people. Values like generosity, tolerance, and perseverance.
American writer and historian James Truslow Adams popularized the phrase “American Dream” in his 1931 book Epic of America as: “that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability and achievement.” His father was born in Caracas, Venezuela.
For now, any shred of that dream has become unattainable for the world’s most vulnerable. It’s especially distance for the 9-year-old Somali child in Ethiopia with congenital heart disease. He, and countless others, will have to wait.
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Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

An introduction to polio

 Brought to you by: Global Poverty Project
Polio is an infectious disease that invades the nervous system and can cause irreversible paralysis and even death.
It is highly infectious, and can have debilitating impacts. While it can strike anyone, at any age, the disease mainly affects children under five years old.
Polio swept throughout the world during the 1930s - 50s – causing widespread fear and panic. Schools were shut down, public spaces closed and families barricaded themselves in their homes to protect their children against the rapid spread of this potentially fatal disease. Hospital wards filled with iron lungs and manufacturers struggled to keep up with demand for crutches as previously healthy children lost their mobility and were paralysed – all as a result of this incurable disease.
Now, thanks to decades of investment in vaccination programs, polio cases have been reduced by 99% - from more than 350,000 to 223 in 2012 - and the number of polio-endemic countries has been reduced from 125 to three (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan). India, a country many thought would never stop this disease, passed a year without a single case in January 2012. But the disease continues to threaten children in some of our world’s poorest communities.
The world has proven tools and tactics in place to beat this disease; and with full funding, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative - the public-private partnership leading eradication efforts – could tackle the last 1% of cases. But a funding shortfall currently threatens eradication efforts.
We know that the continuing existence of this debilitating disease risks the livelihood and futures of vulnerable communities; threatening to pull them deeper into the cycle of poverty.
A simple public health intervention could not only protect future generations from the debilitating impacts of this disease, but also write a story of success that will reinvigorate public support for the life-changing impact of foreign aid investment, and prove that progress in the fight against extreme poverty isn’t just possible – it’s happening right now.

Take action, and support the global call to eradicate polio by signing The End of Polio petition.

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

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