Jul 28, 2017

How blow by vaccinating 900,000 people in two days

Theda Plunkett was 92 years old, waiting in line for a sugar cube.
Standing beside her in the line snaking out of Lakewood Elementary School was her great-great-grandson, John, 4 years old. He was waiting for his sugar cube, too.
It was Sunday, July 29, 1962, D-Day in Dallas for the fight against the scourge of polio. For the first half of the 20th century, the disease had crippled and killed Americans by the tens of thousands, falling hardest on children. Now, there was an answer, the Sabin vaccine — two pink drops dribbled atop those sugar cubes.
Health officials knew the vaccine was effective. The problem was distribution — getting every man, woman and child the necessary dose.
They decided to make a push to vaccinate as many people as possible in one sweeping effort — throwing open the doors of area schools and calling the people in at once.
So it was that last Sunday in July, Theda and John queued up with hundreds of thousands of others to get a thimble-size paper cup that held a lump of sugar laced with the  vaccine. As temperatures soared into the mid-90s, a steady stream of young and old, rich and poor, families of every race and ethnicity joined the lines.
It was probably the largest peacetime mobilization ever undertaken in North Texas, and one that required a mutual trust among government officials, the public and the medical community that seems unfathomable in today’s polarized environment.

“It was  a wonderful example of people in the country pulling together. Just like rationing in World War II, people went along with it,” said Dr. Tony Herring, a pediatric surgeon and chief of staff emeritus at Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, which for decades provided treatment for polio victims.
It was a bold idea. Even in 1962, with about 700,000 residents, Dallas was one of the largest cities in the country, ranking 14th in the 1960 census two years earlier. The population of Dallas County was around 1 million.
“The overall goal was to provide vaccine for everybody, adults and children,  and to not have any more polio,”  said Dr. Percy Luecke Jr., the pediatrician whom the Dallas Medical Society chose to help lead the campaign and persuade the public to get immunized.
Now 91 and recovering from surgery at a rehabilitation facility near his Lakewood home, Luecke clearly remembered the mass immunization campaign that he led 55 years ago. Pulling himself up straight in his wheelchair, he said of his ambitious goal:  
“I wanted a million.”

Shadow of polio

The post-World War II baby boom of the 1950s was in full swing when Luecke graduated from medical school at Washington University in St. Louis and returned home to Dallas to practice pediatric medicine.
But even in an era of national triumphalism, marked by a booming economy and unshakable faith in American know-how, polio remained a terrifying threat.
A pediatrician, just like his father, Luecke had seen how the disease could devastate.

<p><span style="font-size: 1em; background-color: transparent;">In 1962, Dr. Percy Luecke Jr. led a bold campaign to vaccinate 1 million residents of Dallas County against polio. Now 91, Luecke proudly recalls the effort and has a scrapbook with news articles about the campaign.  </span></p>
In 1962, Dr. Percy Luecke Jr. led a bold campaign to vaccinate 1 million residents of Dallas County against polio. Now 91, Luecke proudly recalls the effort and has a scrapbook with news articles about the campaign.  
The polio virus was passed hand to mouth via tiny particles of feces. Little kids would pass it to their friends or siblings. Swimming pools and movie theaters -- so popular in rising America -- became places to avoid, especially in the summer months, considered high season for the contagious disease. "It was very easily spread," Herring said.
Polio resulted in temporary paralysis in the muscles, especially the legs, that could last a few weeks, months or even a lifetime. In some cases, when breathing muscles failed, the disease proved fatal.
Children diagnosed with the disease were considered highly contagious for three to six weeks and would be immediately isolated in polio wards, typically at Parkland Hospital. Such was the fear of polio that in the early 1920s, some towns in Connecticut banned New York City children from visiting.
“And in some cities you could be put in jail if you didn’t report that your child had polio,” said Herring, who became an expert on polio after producing a 2003 documentary,  A Fight to the Finish: Stories of Polio.
After children with polio in North Texas passed the stage of contagion, most of them went to Scottish Rite Hospital in Dallas, which started in the early 1920s as a place to treat victims of the disease.

In the shade of large trees at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital  for Children in Dallas, five young polio patients lay  on special stretchers designed to straighten and stretch their legs in 1940. (Texas Scottish Rite Hospital)
In the shade of large trees at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Dallas, five young polio patients lay  on special stretchers designed to straighten and stretch their legs in 1940.   
(Texas Scottish Rite Hospital) 
That included leg braces and intensive physical therapy. For those who couldn’t breathe on their own, there were respirators, better known as iron lungs, which became the iconic object associated with the disease — a round, metal cylinder that covered the body except for the head.

Texas hard-hit by polio

The worst year for polio was 1952, with 58,000 cases reported across the United States. That year, the epidemic hit Texas as hard as any state. Cases swelled from around 900 at the end of World War II in 1945 to 4,000 in 1952 — 7 percent of all cases in the U.S. that year.
“Polio was the biggest public health problem in the United States at midcentury,” said Dr. James Luby, an infectious diseases specialist and professor at UT Southwestern who was in medical school in the late 1950s.  “We were seeing increased number of cases in Texas. It was fortunate that the vaccine came along in 1955.”

That year,  a scientist in Pittsburgh, Dr. Jonas Salk, developed a dead polio virus that could be used to inoculate people from the living disease. Vaccinations began right away. A few years later, in 1961, Dr. Albert Sabin developed an oral version that proved more effective. The Sabin oral vaccine was a live virus, weakened in the laboratory, then dried and frozen before being shipped around the country. Cheaper and easier to administer, the oral vaccine was seen as the silver bullet in the fight against polio.

<p>Dr. Jonas Salk (right), the scientist who developed the first polio vaccine, administers an injection to a boy in Pittsburgh. The Salk vaccine came into use in 1955. The oral vaccine was developed by Dr. Albert Sabin and was used on the public starting in 1961. (File Photo/The Associated Press)</p>
Dr. Jonas Salk (right), the scientist who developed the first polio vaccine, administers an injection to a boy in Pittsburgh. The Salk vaccine came into use in 1955. The oral vaccine was developed by Dr. Albert Sabin and was used on the public starting in 1961. (File Photo/The Associated Press)
The public embraced the work of Salk and Sabin, both of whom were hailed as heroes. Fear of the disease overcame any anxiety about taking the vaccine, Herring said. “I don’t think there was much resistance,” he said. “People were so afraid of polio and so excited that they had something that would prevent it.”

The Dallas campaign

Luecke was 35 years old when the Dallas County Medical Society chose him to be the spokesman for the local campaign. His job was to help mobilize community leaders and persuade the public to take the new vaccine, and he was fully committed to the cause.
“People were dying, and we had an opportunity to keep that from going further,” he said.
Luecke quickly became a familiar face throughout Dallas as he spoke to different groups and at news conferences. The Dallas Morning Newsdescribed him as calm, well-respected by his peers, “a neat dresser and partly bald.” Married with four children, he emphasized wherever he went that his family would also get the oral vaccine.

The mass immunizations were scheduled for back-to-back Sundays — July 29 and Aug. 5 — to make sure that those who couldn’t make it the first Sunday had another chance.
Religious and political leaders from all corners of Dallas County promoted the campaign, which also drew strong support from the medical community, schools and businesses. Luecke needed about 30 volunteers, including doctors and nurses, in each of the 90 senior high, junior high and elementary schools where the vaccine would be distributed.  
Volunteers stepped forward from the Red Cross, PTAs and the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis — the group that organized the March of Dimes, a grass-roots movement that relied on thousands of volunteers.
When the Red Cross issued an appeal for volunteers, more than a thousand residents called in and officials were fielding 175 calls an hour in the morning. Some people complained that they had tried calling for hours and couldn’t get through.
Altogether, the number of volunteers swelled to 4,500.

Polio cases rising

The week leading up to the first Sunday drive, The News carried a story that Dallas County had recorded its 15th case of polio, a 13-month-old girl who was paralyzed in her legs and back

The number of polio cases throughout Texas was rising sharply. Through the first 28 weeks of 1962, Texas recorded 113 cases of polio, according to federal public health data reported by The News. During the same period a year earlier, there had been just 31 cases.
John McKee, then the president of Scottish Rite Hospital,  urged the public to take the mass immunization campaign seriously. “If people don’t realize how serious polio is and the importance of getting the Sabin vaccine July 29 [or] Aug. 5, tell them they can just drop by the hospital,” McKee said.  
To help speed up the process, newspapers printed registration forms to be handed in at the vaccination centers. Grocery stores also carried the forms.
Three days before the drive, officials said they were prepared to handle as many as 3,000 people an hour at each site. Everyone 6 weeks of age and over could get immunized. The vaccine was free, but donations of 25 cents or more would be accepted to help defray costs.
Even those people who had already received the earlier Salk vaccine shot were encouraged to get the oral vaccine as a booster. The oral vaccine also eliminated the possibility of a person being a carrier.  

On July 26, three days before the drive, the vaccine arrived at Dallas Love Field. It was stored in big freezers loaned to the campaign by General Electric.
The day of the drive, at least 500 automobiles on loan from new car dealers cruised neighborhoods to give free rides to the vaccine sites, which opened at noon and closed at 6 p.m.
Any worries about turnout quickly faded. At Thomas Jefferson High School north of Love Field,  3,500 people had already taken the vaccine in the first 35 minutes. Ten thousand people were vaccinated in six hours at Adamson High School in Oak Cliff.

<i>The Dallas Morning News</i> had extensive coverage of the effort after the initial day of mass vaccinations. 
The Dallas Morning News had extensive coverage of the effort after the initial day of mass vaccinations.  
There were some lighter moments. One volunteer took a call from a man who asked if he could still take the vaccine because he’d “been hitting the old bottle pretty hard,” according to a story the next day in The News. At Hillcrest High in North Dallas, a professional clown entertained residents lined up for blocks.
By the end of the day, the preliminary results showed 590,000 Dallas County residents received  the Sabin oral vaccine that Sunday. Another 233,220 residents got vaccinated the following Sunday, Aug. 5. But officials estimated that the final tally would come in at around 950,000, ensuring an immunization rate well over 90 percent.
“I think the public was convinced that the problem was significant. They were convinced as to the efficacy of the vaccines,” said Luby, the professor in the division of infectious diseases at UT Southwestern.  And members of the public were convinced they could play a role in defeating the disease by getting immunized, he said.
And they did.

Since 1979, zero cases of polio have originated in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. On a few rare occasions, the disease has been brought into the country by a traveler.
The best way  to keep the U.S. polio-free, according to the CDC, is to maintain the high immunity against polio by vaccination. When Luecke would go around town speaking to groups during the 1962 campaign, he would occasionally encounter someone who was afraid of taking the vaccine.
“Not as many as there are now,” he said, lamenting the rise of anti-vaccine advocates.
“A lot of people today have their own ideas of what they should do,” Luecke said. “There was not as much of that back then. Most of the time in the 1960s and before, people accepted immunizations.”
He’s proud of the way the people of Dallas County pulled together that last Sunday in July 1962.
 “I was glad to be involved with that,” he said. “I was very satisfied with the way it turned out. We got a whole lot of help from everybody.”

Artificial Sweeteners Cause Cancer

Story at-a-glance 

  • A significant increase in cancerous tumors was seen among male mice fed sucralose (Splenda)
  • The cancer risk increased along with the dose
  • The risk of leukemia in male mice also significantly increased, especially at higher doses.

By Dr. Mercola
If you've added the artificial sweetener sucralose (brand name Splenda) to your diet because you think it's a healthy alternative to sugar, you're being dangerously misled. Research from the Ramazzini Institute has linked the popular sugar alternative to cancer, specifically leukemia. 
The findings were first presented at a London cancer conference in 2012 and prompted The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) to downgrade Splenda from its "safe" category to one of "caution."
Now that the study has been published in a peer-reviewed journal, CSPI has again downgraded Splenda, this time from "caution" to "avoid."

Splenda May Increase Risk of Cancer in Mice

The researchers fed mice Splenda beginning prenatally and continuing for their entire lifespan. The mice were fed varying concentrations of the artificial sweetener: 0 ppm (parts per million), 500 ppm, 2,000 ppm, 8,000 ppm or 16,000 ppm. 
A significant increase in cancerous tumors was seen among male mice, and the risk increased along with the dose. The risk of leukemia in male mice also significantly increased, especially at Splenda doses of 2,000 to 16,000 ppm.1 According to the study:
"These findings do not support previous data that sucralose is biologically inert. More studies are necessary to show the safety of sucralose, including new and more adequate carcinogenic bioassay on rats.
Considering that millions of people are likely exposed, follow-up studies are urgent."
CSPI explained that the only other long-term feeding studies conducted on Splenda were conducted by its manufacturer. The new study, they said:2
" … [I]s more powerful than the industry-funded studies, which tested fewer animals, started exposing the animals beginning at adolescence as opposed to in utero, and ended earlier in the animals' lives."
After more than a decade, CSPI has finally gotten it right about Splenda in recommending that consumers avoid it. For the record, however, CSPI is generally an organization whose guidelines need to be taken with a grain of salt.
For instance, while recommending that people avoid artificial sweeteners like sucralose, aspartameand saccharin, they still consider drinking diet soda to be safer than drinking regular soda. 

Splenda Is Found in 4,500 Products

If you'd like to heed the warnings and cut Splenda from your diet, be aware that it's found in more than 4,500 products. Splenda has been smartly marketed, and it's most known for its tag line "made from sugar so it tastes like sugar."
It's earned a reputation for being somehow safer than other artificial sweeteners like aspartame, which is why PepsiCo ditched aspartame in its Diet Pepsi in 2015 and replaced it with none other than Splenda.
Splenda became one of the top-selling artificial sweeteners in the U.S. in a very short period of time. Between 2000 and 2004, the percentage of U.S. households using Splenda products jumped from 3 percent to 20 percent. By 2012, Splenda generated sales of nearly $288 million.3
But make no mistake; Splenda is far from natural, even though it technically does start off as a sugar molecule. In the five-step patented process of making sucralose, three chlorine molecules are added to a sucrose or sugar molecule.
A sucrose molecule is a disaccharide that contains two single sugars bound together: glucose and fructose. The chemical process to make sucralose alters the chemical composition of the sugar so much that it is somehow converted to a fructose-galactose molecule.
This type of sugar molecule does not occur in nature, and therefore your body does not possess the ability to properly metabolize it. As a result of this "unique" biochemical make-up, the manufacturers claim that Splenda is not digested or metabolized by your body, making it have zero calories.
Splenda is supposed to pass right through you. However, the research (which is primarily extrapolated from animal studies) indicates that about 15 percent of sucralose is, in fact, absorbed into your digestive system and ultimately stored in your body.

Splenda May Decimate Your Gut Bacteria


If the potential cancer finding isn't enough to sway you away from this toxic artificial sweetener, be aware that Splenda may wreak havoc on your gut bacteria, which could have an untold number of consequences on your health.
An animal study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, for instance, found that Splenda reduces the amount of beneficial bacteria in rat intestines by 50 percent while also increasing the pH level.
It also affected a glycoprotein that may affect the way certain drugs are metabolized by the body.4 The researchers explained:
"At the end of the 12-wk treatment period, the numbers of total anaerobes, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, Bacteroides, clostridia, and total aerobic bacteria were significantly decreased … Splenda also increased fecal pH
These changes occurred at Splenda dosages that contained sucralose at 1.1 to 11 mg/kg (the U.S. FDA Acceptable Daily Intake for sucralose is 5 mg/kg).
Evidence indicates that a 12-wk administration of Splenda exerted numerous adverse effects, including (1) reduction in beneficial fecal microflora, (2) increased fecal pH, and (3) enhanced expression levels of P-gp, CYP3A4, and CYP2D1, which are known to limit the bioavailability of orally administered drugs."

Splenda May Have Neurotoxic Effects and Is Found in Water

Research published in 2014 detailed Splenda's oxidative effects and suggested the sweetener may have neurotoxic properties. 
The researchers, who assessed the effects of sucralose on water fleas, concluded that: "exposure to sucralose may induce neurological and oxidative mechanisms with potentially important consequences for animal behavior and physiology."5
The enzyme acetylcholinesterase is found in all animals, and for researchers looking for possible effects that artificial sweeteners like Splenda might have on animals and humans, this new information was disturbing. 
If for no other reason, that's why it's so important to find out the consequences of Splenda exposure sooner rather than later, as the chemicals have already been detected in municipal effluents and surface waters in both the U.S. and Europe.6

Splenda Raises Your Insulin Levels

Far from being an inert substance, research also shows that Splenda affects your body's insulin response. When study participants drank a Splenda-sweetened beverage, their insulin levels rose about 20 percent higher than when they consumed only water prior to taking a glucose-challenge test.7
Blood sugar levels also peaked at a higher level, "So the artificial sweetener was related to an enhanced blood insulin and glucose response," researchers noted, adding:8
"Although we found that sucralose affects the glucose and insulin response to glucose ingestion, we don't know the mechanism responsible. We have shown that sucralose is having an effect. In obese people without diabetes, we have shown sucralose is more than just something sweet that you put into your mouth with no other consequences.
What these all mean for daily life scenarios is still unknown, but our findings are stressing the need for more studies. Whether these acute effects of sucralose will influence how our bodies handle sugar in the long term is something we need to know."

Artificial Sweeteners Confuse Your Metabolism 

When you eat something sweet, your brain releases dopamine, which activates your brain's reward center. The appetite-regulating hormone leptin is also released, which eventually informs your brain that you are "full" once a certain amount of calories have been ingested. 
However, when you consume something that tastes sweet but doesn't contain any calories, like an artificial sweetener, your brain's pleasure pathway still gets activated by the sweet taste. However, there's nothing to deactivate it since the calories never arrive. 
Artificial sweeteners basically trick your body into thinking that it's going to receive sugar (calories), but when the sugar doesn't come your body continues to signal that it needs more, which results in carb cravings. 
Contrary to industry claims, research over the last 30 years — including several large-scale prospective cohort studies — has shown that artificial sweeteners stimulate appetite, increase cravings for carbs, and produce a variety of metabolic dysfunctions that promote fat storage and weight gain — often to the researchers' great surprise.
For instance, a 2010 review published in the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine revealed the correlation between increased usage of artificial sweeteners in food and drinks and the corresponding rise in obesity. More than 11,650 children aged 9 to 14 were included in this study. Each daily serving of diet beverage was associated with a body mass index (BMI) increase of 0.16 kg/m2.
You can see the trends for yourself in the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine graphic below, which clearly refutes the beverage industry's claims that artificially sweetened diet soda aids weight loss. 

Are There Safer Artificial Sweeteners?

I recommend avoiding artificial sweeteners of any kind, as each is linked with its own risks. Aspartame is perhaps the most dangerous of the bunch. At least it's one of the most widely used and has the most reports of adverse effects. There are also hundreds of scientific studies demonstrating its harmful effects.
Sugar alcohols are another option on the market. They can be identified by the commonality of "ol" at the end of their name, such as xylitol glucitol, sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, glycerol, and lactitol. They're not as sweet as sugar, and they do contain fewer calories, but they're not calorie-free. So don't get confused by the "sugar-free" label on foods containing these sweeteners. 
One reason that sugar alcohols provide fewer calories than sugar is because they're not completely absorbed into your body. Because of this, eating too many foods containing sugar alcohols can lead to abdominal gas and diarrhea. It's also worth noting that maltitol, a commonly used sugar alcohol, spikes blood sugar almost as much as a starchy new potato.
Xylitol, in comparison, does not have a great effect on your blood sugar, so from that perspective it may be a better choice. In moderation, some sugar alcohols can be a better choice than artificial sweeteners like Splenda and aspartame. Of the various sugar alcohols, xylitol is one of the best. When it is pure, the potential side effects are minimal, and it actually comes with some benefits such as fighting tooth decay.
All in all, I would say that xylitol is reasonably safe, and potentially even a mildly beneficial sweetener. As a side note, xylitol is toxic to dogs and some other animals, so be sure to keep it out of reach of your family pets.)
That being said, two of the best natural sugar substitutes are from the plant kingdom: Stevia and Luo Han Guo (also spelled Luo Han Kuo). Stevia, a highly sweet herb derived from the leaf of the South American stevia plant, is sold as a supplement. It's completely safe in its natural form and can be used to sweeten most dishes and drinks.
Luo Han Kuo is similar to Stevia, but it's a bit more expensive and harder to find. In China, the Luo Han fruit has been used as a sweetener for centuries, and it's about 200 times sweeter than sugar.

How to Break Free From Artificial Sweeteners

The best option of all is to break free from the grip of artificial sweeteners, which starts by eliminating your sugar cravings. If you aren't craving something sweet, you probably won't have a desire to reach for an artificial sweetener.
First, I highly recommend trying an energy psychology technique called Turbo Tapping, which has helped many "soda addicts" kick their habit, and it should work for any type of sweet craving (or diet soda craving) you may have. A few other tricks to try to kick your sugar cravings:
• Exercise: Anyone who exercises intensely on a regular basis will know that significant amounts of cardiovascular exercise is one of the best "cures" for food cravings. It always amazes me how my appetite, especially for sweets, dramatically decreases after a good workout. 
I believe the mechanism is related to the dramatic reduction in insulin levels that occurs after exercise. Additionally, if you do eat sugars or fruits around the time of the exercise, your sugar levels will not rise as it will metabolized for fuel
• Organic, black coffee: Coffee is a potent opioid receptor antagonist, and contains compounds such as cafestrol — found plentifully in both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee — which can bind to your opioid receptors, occupy them and essentially block your addiction to other opioid-releasing food.9,10 This may profoundly reduce the addictive power of other substances, such as sugar.
• Sour taste, such as that from cultured vegetables, helps to reduce sweet cravings, too. This is doubly beneficial, as fermented vegetables also promote gut health. You can also try adding lemon or lime juice to your water.

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