17 mar. 2018

Biography: Franklin Delano Roosevelt



ELEANOR ROOSEVELT | ARTICLE

Eleanor-FDR-bio-Feature.jpg

1935, Courtesy: Library of Congress
On the morning of March 4, 1933 an air of tense expectancy pervaded America. The country was experiencing its worst year yet of the Depression, the nation's banks had been closed, and most Americans felt as though their democratic institutions had failed. Yet that Saturday had a momentousness about it. It was the day of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's inauguration as president of the United Stateds. Americans gathered around their radios to hear the much anticipated inaugural address. They waited to hear if the new president had a solution to the national emergency. Escorted to the podium by his son, James, Roosevelt spoke the immortal words which would come to identify both his character and his Presidency: "the only thing to fear is fear itself -- nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance." Americans turned away from their radios with a new sense of hope, feeling as though they had finally met someone who would combat the Depression. Roosevelt had assumed the role which would lead many to worship him, some to despise him, and most to lean on him for years to come.
It was actually in 1912 that Roosevelt first distinguished himself as a person apart from the ordinary. He had been elected to the New York Senate in 1910; a remarkable feat for a Democrat within the Republican-controlled state. In opposing Tammany Hall's candidate for the United States Senate, Roosevelt gained significant attention as a dissident to machine politics. This surprised many including Louis Howe who was later to become Roosevelt's closest political adviser. Howe first regarded him, with his "patrician nose," privileged name, and aristocratic mannerisms, as a "spoiled silk-pants sort of guy." It was not until Roosevelt challenged party politics that Howe took the interest in him which would become a lifelong devotion.
Howe's first impressions were largely correct. Roosevelt had been born into a class of wealth and leisure. The Roosevelts and the Delanos had long been successful merchants whose descendants enjoyed a prominent place among the "gentry" of the Hudson River. Roosevelt was born in 1882 and grew up in Hyde Park, his family's sprawling estate in New York, as the only child of two doting parents. He was particularly close to his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt. As was expected of a man of his social standing, Roosevelt received an education in the fashion of English gentry. As a child, he was privately tutored in French and Latin while accompanying his family on tours through Europe. At the age of 14, he was enrolled at Groton and four years later, at Harvard University. Following the track of an American "aristocrat," he entered Columbia's Law School in 1904 on the path to settling into a privileged and respectable law career.
Yet living the life of a lawyer soon bored him. He was admitted to the bar in 1907, but found himself much more attracted to politics. Inspired greatly by the political feats of his cousin, Theodore Roosevelt, the young Roosevelt ran for and won a position in the New York State Senate in 1910. Three years later, President Woodrow Wilson appointed him to the role of Assistant Secretary to the Navy, a position he would occupy until 1920.
Meanwhile, Roosevelt was beginning a family. He had married his fifth cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt, in 1905, and by 1920 the couple had had six children, of whom five survived infancy. Yet Franklin's mother, with her dominating manner and determination to be involved in all aspects of her son's life, posed significant problems for the intimacy and the independence of the couple. Eleanor and Franklin's relationship was damaged further by Franklin's affair with social secretary, Lucy Mercer -- Eleanor found their love letters in 1918 while unpacking Franklin's suitcase. She then presented her husband with a choice between a divorce and the termination of his affair. Heeding the reprimands of his mother and aware of the problems divorce would pose for a political career, Franklin ended the liaison. The result was that he and Eleanor's relationship became more of a partnership than anything else. They were "linked by indissoluble bonds but not lost in each other as husband and wife might sometimes be."
In 1921, while vacationing at his summer home on Campobello Island, Roosevelt was stricken with polio. The illness paralyzed his legs and forced him to limit his political activities. While many, including Sara Roosevelt, expected Roosevelt to leave politics forever, Eleanor and Louis Howe supported him on a path to recovery and political activity. Howe said of Roosevelt at this time, "He began to see the other fellow's point of view. He thought of others who were ill and afflicted and in want. He dwelt on many things which had not bothered him much before. Lying there, he grew bigger day by day."
Following in the career path, if not the partisanship, of his Republican cousin Theodore, Franklin was elected Governor of New York in 1928 as a Democrat. In that position he garnered enough popularity within the Democratic party to be nominated for president in 1932. Once elected, he declared a bank holiday, he used the radio to speak to the nation during his "fireside chats," and he introduced to Congress 16 pieces of significant legislation. Among the laws and agencies created were the National Recovery Administration (NRA), the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). Although these programs never actually eradicated the Depression, Roosevelt's vigorous leadership was welcomed by the jobless, the homeless, Congressmen, and big businessmen alike.
After his re-election in 1936, events aided Roosevelt's expansion of federal power. After a conservative Supreme Court Justice resigned, Roosevelt was able to appoint a New Dealer to the position, the first of several which caused an overall court reorganization in 1937. He had been elected to an unprecedented third term in office when the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December of 1941 led the nation into the Second World War. As he did with the New Deal, Roosevelt again expanded the powers of government, this time with a massive mobilization of war-related industries which finally pulled the nation out of the Depression. In a series of high-level conferences throughout the war, he began planning what would become the United Nations.
Near the end of the war, Roosevelt's health began to fail rapidly. Five months before Japan's surrender to the Allied Powers, Roosevelt died of a stroke in Warm Springs, Georgia. Eleanor Roosevelt had been attending a fundraiser at the time and was devastated to learn that when he died, he was with the woman he had agreed never to see again, Lucy Mercer. To the American people, Roosevelt's death was a terrible blow. He had been president for more than 12 years and had carried them through two of the major crises of the 20th century. He was harshly criticized for considerable failures. These included not supporting anti-lynching legislation, signing the order which indiscriminately detained Japanese Americans in internment camps, and for not lending aid to the persecuted Jews of Europe. Yet immediately following his death, most Americans remembered him simply for the comforting way he had "spoken" to them through their radios and for the way he had assertively directed them like no other leader before.

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The History of wheelchairs

The earliest records of wheelchair history, one is in the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (AD 525Year) on the sarcophagus, the sarcophagus carved with wheels of the chair; the other is in the ancient Greek vase to describe a similar thing, almost the same age with China.
Europe's first official record of wheelchairs is the medieval wheelbarrow, which requires others to drive, closer to contemporary nursing wheelchairs. AD 16th century, the Renaissance, the Spanish King Philip II because of suffering from the wind, ordered the craftsmen to produce a wheelchair, this wheelchair made of wood, very cumbersome, but for the disable’s travel, is already Very good tool.

In Europe, Japan, some of the early paintings, you can see the appearance of a wooden wheelchair, looks like a cart, the wheels are very small, then people probably did not think of "manual wheelchair" at this time, the wheel is only to be pushed when it could be slide.
About the 18th century, the world appeared near the modern design of the wheelchair, by the two large wooden front wheels and behind a single ferry, the middle with a chair with a handrail.
In 1914, after the outbreak of the First World War, after the First World War, the United States provided wheelchairs for the victims, but it is about 50 pounds. The United Kingdom is the development of hand-cranked three wheelchairs, and soon after the power drive with the device.
The modern sense of the wheelchair in 1932, the American Hebert (Hebert Everest) because of mine damage to the back, and lead to paralysis, he and his friend Harry (Harry Jennings) invented the first modern foldable wheelchair.
After World War II, in order to help the wartime veteran’s travel, Canadian inventor George Klein (George Klein) and his team of engineers invented the first electric wheelchair.
In 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games, the "disabled Olympic" the term comes at first time. At the same time, at this time the Paralympic Games, wheelchair racing for the first time to become a match project, male and female players can participate in 60 meters racing.

In 1975, Bob Hall became the first person to finish a marathon in a wheelchair.
From ancient times to the present, the wheelchair from the initial "let the disabled with the help of others out of the house" to "disabled people can go out of their own house", and then can be raised, climbing, across the grass, Technology wheelchair, wheelchair from a tool to make up for human limb dysfunction, to achieve the ability to improve and transcend human action.

Polio this week as of 13 March 2018


from Global Polio Eradication Initiative
Polio this week as of 13 March 2018 New on www.polioeradication.org:For International Women’s Day, we highlighted the critical role that women play in global polio eradication efforts. Dr Adele Daleke Lisi Aluma works to reach children who have never been vaccinated, whilst in Somalia, women are the face of polio eradication. In Nigeria, dedicated female mobilizers are ending polio, one home at a time.
We also launched the Gender and Polio section of our website.
On the WHO Instagram, and on Twitter at @WHOAfghanistan, see the March polio vaccination campaign in Afghanistan from start to finish.
The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) Polio Working Group recently met in Geneva, Switzerland, to review global progress against polio. The group reviewed and endorsed the main elements of the Post-Eradication Strategy (PCS) currently being developed at the request of Member States, aimed at ensuring the availability of core functions to sustain a polio-free world after global certification (such as outbreak response capacity, surveillance, immunization and containment). The PCS will be presented in April to the full SAGE, and to Member States at the World Health Assembly (WHA) in May. The group also reviewed current outbreak response protocols to vaccine-derived poliovirus, and agreed with a proposed plan to harmonize recommendations on immunization schedules in countries with Polio Essential Facilities (PEFs – facilities that will continue to handle poliovirus stock under appropriate containment).
Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: Afghanistan: Advance notifications have been received of two new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), one occurring in Kunar province, and one in Kandahar province. Three new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) positive environmental samples have been reported in Nangarhar province. Pakistan: One new WPV1 positive environmental sample has been reported in Balochistan province. Democratic Republic of the Congo: Two cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) reported, one from Tanganyika province, and one from Haut Lomami province.
See country-specific sections for further details.
Afghanistan
  • Advance notifications have been received of two new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), one occurring in Kunar province, and one in Kandahar province.
  • This will raise the total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Afghanistan in 2018 to five.
  • Three new WPV1 positive environmental samples were reported this week in Nangarhar province, two in Jalalabad district, collected on 24 February, and one in Behsud district, collected on 25 February.
  • Supplementary immunization days are currently ongoing, with vaccinators aiming to vaccinate children across 34 provinces using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV). The days are synchronized with a campaign taking place in Pakistan, part of efforts to interrupt transmission of the virus across the shared border.
  • Follow the campaign on the WHO Instagram, and on Twitter at @WHOAfghanistan.
  • Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
Pakistan
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Pakistan in 2017 remains eight. There are no cases reported in 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Zhob district, Balochistan province, with onset on 15 November 2017.
  • One new WPV1 positive environmental sample was reported this week, collected in Quetta district, Balochistan province, on 13 February.
  • Supplementary immunization days are currently ongoing, with vaccinators aiming to vaccinate children across six provinces using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV). The days are synchronized with a campaign taking place in Afghanistan, part of efforts to interrupt transmission of the virus across the shared border.
  • Follow the campaign on Twitter at @WHOPakistan.
  • Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
Nigeria
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 is four and no cases have been reported in 2017 or 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Monguno Local Government Area, Borno, with onset on 21 August 2016.
  • Nigeria continues to implement an emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains affecting the country (last detected in 2016).
  • The next immunization days are planned for early April, synchronized with campaigns in countries across the Lake Chad basin.
  • As part of the emergency response, subnational surveillance continues to be strengthened.
Lake Chad Basin
The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (Borno state, Nigeria in 2016) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) (Borno and Sokoto states in 2016) continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin.
Emergency outbreak response efforts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps across the region.
These activities include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons camps, and at international borders.
The next set of supplementary immunization days are planned for early April, synchronized across countries in the Lake Chad basin.
Read the latest polio update from the Lake Chad basin to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
Central Africa
Two new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. One case was reported in Mulongo district, Haut Lomami province, with onset of paralysis on 16 January, and one case was reported in Manono district, Tanganyika province, with onset of paralysis on 19 January. These are the first reported cases of 2018.
In response to recent cases, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) recently announced the cVDPV2 outbreak ongoing in the country a Public Health Emergency of National Concern. The Ministry of Health, supported by WHO and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, remains fully committed to outbreak response, including use of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) across the country, in line with internationally-agreed outbreak response protocols.
Children living in the districts where the latest cases were reported were last targeted with mOPV2 during December vaccination days. The next campaign will take place following the completion of microplanning exercises to ensure high vaccination coverage during campaigns.
Surveillance and immunization activities continue to be strengthened in neighbouring countries.
Read the latest polio update from the DRC to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
Horn of Africa
  • Circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) is confirmed in Somalia.
  • Three vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2s (VDPV2s) were isolated from two environmental samples collected in Hamarweyn district, Banadir province (Mogadishu), one on 4 January, and one on 11 January 2018. These latest isolates are genetically linked to previously isolated VDPV2s from 2017, collected on 22 October and 2 November from environmental samples collected from Waberi district, Banadir province. In total, four environmental samples (with seven unique virus sequences) positive for cVDPV2 have been collected in Somalia between October 2017, and January 2018.
  • No cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with this cVDPV2 have been detected at this time – the viruses were all isolated from environmental samples.
  • Surveillance for AFP cases in the area is being strengthened.
  • Since detection of the initial isolates in 2017, outbreak response campaigns in line with internationally-agreed guidelines have been implemented, consisting of two large-scale immunization activities. A third activity is planned for March 2018.
  • WHO and its partners are continuing to support local public health authorities in conducting field investigations and risk assessments to more clearly assess any potential risk of circulation of the identified cVDPV2, and to continue to support the outbreak response and strengthening of disease surveillance.
  • Read our Somalia country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
The Middle East
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week.
  • The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in Syria in 2017 remains 74.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Boukamal district, with onset on 21 September 2017.
  • A nationwide immunization round utilizing bivalent OPV (bOPV) is ongoing in 13 governorates. The campaign aims to reach 2.4 million children aged less than five years.
  • Immunization activities utilizing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) are ongoing in accessible areas of Aleppo governorate; a total of 5,427 children have already been reported as vaccinated in Ein Arab district. This is the first vaccination campaign to reach the area in two years.
  • Immunization activities have commenced in Tell Abyad district, Raqqa governorate aiming to reach 6,500 children aged 2-23 months.
  • Read the latest polio update from Syria to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.

16 mar. 2018

RAMAN BEGINS LOK SURAJ WITH POLIO DROPS TO KIDS



On the first day of the third phase of state-wide Lok Suraj Abhiyaan, Chief Minister Raman Singh paid surprise visit to tribal-populated village Bandatola of Kanker district on Sunday and gave polio drops to infants at an Anganwadi centre, which was highly appreciated by dozens of tribals who assembled to interact with Singh on local development issues.
Accompanied by Forest Minister Mahesh Gagda and Principal Secretary Aman Kumar, Singh assessed ground reality of implementation of his government’s development projects at local level.
Singh was reportedly delighted with feedbacks offered by Bandatola villagers about government’s image in the area. He told villagers, Rs Rs I am glad that I have got the opportunity to commence Lok Suraaj Abhiyan by providing polio vaccine to infants at Aanganbadi centre of the village,’’.
He also expressed his pleasure to see Patwari Ms Mithileshwari Mandawi being appreciated for her work by the villagers. When Chief Minister called Patwari at chaupal and asked villagers, if they had any complaints regarding Patwari's work then in  response, villagers told Chief Minister that Patwari  Mithileshwari Mandwari is regular and very committed in her duties and responsibilities.
Chief Minister too lauded Mandawi saying that she has come from a humble background and tough circumstances, and that is why she understands the plight of villagers so well. Singh told her to keep up her good work, dedication and honesty while discharging her official duties and extended good wishes.
At the chaupal, Chief Minister was happy to know that under Prime Minister's Clean India Mission, all 447 households of Bandatola and dependent villages are now have decently-built toilets.
When Chief Minister asked about the status of smart cards under Health Insurance Scheme, the villagers informed that smart cards have been issued to all of them. Singh told villagers that under Chief Minister Health Insurance Scheme, the annual limit of free medical treatment facility has been increased from Rs 30,000 to Rs 50,000.
He appealed people to avail this scheme. He also informed villagers that from this year, Chief Minister Pension Scheme will also be launched for those who have been found as extremely deprived in socio-economic survey of year 2011.
On being asked, villagers informed Singh that nearly all the households of Bandatola Gram Panchayat have electricity connection and supply.

Chief Minister asked if there was any house that has not got electricity connection yet. On this, Khemraj Kanware stood up and told that under Prime Minister Housing Scheme, construction of his house is in progress, and he needs electricity connection for his house. He told his name in English and said- "I am a very poor person". Singh assured him that his house will get electricity connection, as soon as the construction work is completed.
VIDEO

http://www.dailypioneer.com/state-editions/raipur/raman-begins-lok-suraj-with-polio-drops-to-kids.html


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10 mar. 2018

NEW 'Into the dark': With just months to go before legalization, federal government funds marijuana
























With the legalization of recreational cannabis use just months away, the federal government is "stepping a little into the dark," according to the scientist who helped create pot use guidelines for Canada.
Dr. Benedikt Fischer, a senior scientist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, said cannabis is a complex drug — and there's still a lot we don't know about its effects.
"We're stepping a little into the dark, into the fog, with this step forward for legalization," Fischer said.
Even MP Bill Blair, the federal government's point man on pot, has said there's a need for more scientific evidence to help people make responsible choices once they're able to buy marijuana legally.
"I think we need to continue to work hard to identify what is a safe level of use, what effects this could have. We have a lot of anecdotal evidence and frankly not a lot of good health evidence to help people make healthy choices," Blair told CBC.
He said young people in particular need access to better science.
"We have the highest rates of cannabis use in the world, and clearly just trying to frighten them into abstinence hasn't worked. I think we should inform them into healthier choices," Blair said.

New money for research

The recent federal budget included new money for cannabis research — $20 million over five years to be divided between the Mental Health Commission of Canada and the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse and Addiction.
The budget also set aside almost a billion dollars for Canada's three granting councils, including the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), to conduct general research that will include marijuana.
Dr. Samuel Weiss is the scientific director of neurosciences, mental health and addiction at CIHR. He's also co-ordinating government-wide research on cannabis use.
That research is focusing on 12 priority subjects, but Weiss said there are a few areas in particular that need more research, including neurodevelopment.
"Understanding the impact that cannabis has on neurodevelopmental outcomes, for example — preconception, pregnancy, the fetus, and child and youth brain development," Dr. Weiss told CBC in an interview.
He also points to the need for a better understanding around impairment and "its effects on cognitive function, driving and workplace safety."
Weiss said most of this research is only possible now that marijuana is about to become legal.
"The fact that it was an illegal substance made it almost impossible to study it before in a significant way. But now that it is to be legalized, it opens the door for more studies," Weiss said.

Legalization raising new questions

But Fischer said the very act of legalization raises more questions.
"Does it change who uses cannabis, how people use cannabis and what the ... acute and long term health consequences are?"
He also points to questions about how people intend to ingest the drug.
"Twenty years ago, pretty much everybody who used cannabis were either smoking a joint or, to a lesser degree, a hash pipe. Now we have vaping, e-cigarette devices, we have edibles, drinkables. All of those modes of use are available and evolving," he said.
CBC News Toronto
Joint Ventures: The edible side of cannabis
00:00 00:56
Joint Ventures: The edible side of cannabis0:56
Fischer said he also wants the federal government to do more studies on how to treat those addicted to marijuana.
"The toolbox of treatment options or evidence-based forms of treatment for cannabis is extremely limited. There's no evidence-based or approved pharmatherapy, like there is methadone for opioids," he said.
Despite all these unanswered questions, Fischer agrees it will be easier to answer them in a legal system than in an illegal one.
Conservative health critic Marilyn Gladu said she is pleased the government is doing the research but she questions its logic in funding that research, pointing out that the budget earmarked about $550 million to create the legal network — but just $20 million for targeted research.
"I don't know the government has the right priority on this," Gladu said.

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