Jun 27, 2018

11 Best Foods For Your Immune System

The following story is excerpted from TIME’s special edition, 100 Most Healing Foods, which is available in stores, at the Meredith Shop and at Amazon.
Vitamin C has a reputation for being a feel-good nutrient, so it will come as no surprise that this list is full of foods with high levels of it. In the body, vitamin C behaves as an antioxidant, which means it protects cells from free-radical damage. Consuming it also helps the body better absorb iron, which is critical for normal immune-system function.

Jalapeño peppers

Lucas Zarebinski
Why they’re good for you
Jalapeño peppers get their spice from a compound called capsaicin, which is something of an all-star in the nutrition world. Capsaicin acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and may ease arthritis symptoms. Some research suggests it can also keep your metabolism humming.
How to eat them
Add diced jalapeño peppers to guacamole for an extra kick of flavor. You can also mix these peppers into your favorite cornbread recipe.

Lemons

Lucas Zarebinski
Why they’re good for you
Lemons are high in compounds called bio-flavonoids, which kill cancer-causing free radicals. They also provide vitamin C (you can meet half your daily requirement from one fruit), so adding lemon juice to your meals is an easy strategy for protecting yourself against colds and other infections.
How to eat them
One simple way to work in a daily dose of vitamin C is to drink lemon water, either chilled or warm. A squeeze of lemon also makes steamed veggies tastier.

Apples

Lucas Zarebinski
Why they’re good for you
People who eat an apple a day use fewer prescription medications, according to a 2015 study. And regular apple eaters report fewer asthma symptoms, according to British research (a flavonoid called khellin may open up airways). Apples are also high in fiber, which can help reduce the inflammation common during infections. Bonus: they’re a superfood when it comes to satiety.
How to eat them
To turn apples into a more energizing snack, slice one up and enjoy with a spoonful of peanut or almond butter. Buy organic or wash well before eating: a recent study found that a little water and baking soda removes pesticide residue from the fruit.

Chicken soup

Lucas Zarebinski
Why it’s good for you
How to eat it
Simmer up your own soup and add nutrient-dense foods like carrots, onions and fresh herbs.

Garlic

Lucas Zarebinski
Why it’s good for you
How to eat it
For a flavor and immunity boost, add garlic to marinades, roasted vegetables or grain bowls.

Grapefruit

Lucas Zarebinski
Why it’s good for you
How to eat it
For a healthy morning treat, broil grapefruit with a little cinnamon sugar.

Ginger

Lucas Zarebinski
Why it’s good for you
How to eat it
Toss freshly ground ginger into a tofu stir-fry or sip it in your tea.

Sage

Lucas Zarebinski
Why it’s good for you
How to eat it
Mix sage, goat cheese and eggs for a flavor-filled omelet. You can also add this earthy herb to bean soups and chicken, pork and beef dishes.

Chamomile tea



Lucas Zarebinski
Why it’s good for you
an upset stomach. The flowers contain compounds called flavonoids that may help reduce inflammation and pain.
How to eat it
Make a healthy “hot toddy” with hot chamomile tea, honey and sliced lemon.

Fennel

Lucas Zarebinski
Why it’s good for you
How to eat it
You can roast fennel with other vegetables, or even boil, strain and drink it as a tea.

Cranberries

Lucas Zarebinski
Why they’re good for you
How to eat them
Cook cranberries and oranges or other citrus fruits on a stove top to make a jam.

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

How prepared is the world for the next epidemic? This tool shows most countries are not.



PreventEpidemics.org is the first website that gives a score to each country based on their ability to find, stop and prevent epidemics. (PreventEpidemics.org)
Public health officials and business leaders like Bill Gates have long warned that the world is not ready for the next pandemic.
Now an initiative led by Tom Frieden, former director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has developed a tool that spotlights gaps in preparedness, and actions that countries and organizations can take to close them. The new website, PreventEpidemics.org, gives an individual score to each country and uses color codes to rank the world by five levels of preparedness.
“What this does, it tells you where the gaps are and what needs to be done,” said Frieden, chief executive of Resolve to Save Lives, part of Vital Strategies, a New York-based public health nonprofit organization.
Infectious diseases can spread from one village to any country in the world in about 36 hours. On average, there are 100 outbreaks a day around the world. But the website shows that most countries have not yet taken the steps needed to prepare for this risk.
The score, from 0 to 100, is based on existing data from evaluations of epidemic preparedness developed by the World Health Organization after the 2014 Ebola epidemic. Those evaluations have been going on since 2016, but the data contained in them, while public, is difficult to find.
Independent and regular monitoring and tracking for epidemic and pandemic risk is key to keeping biological threats on the agenda of global political leaders, experts say.
Tom Inglesby, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, said the tool “shines a more clear light” on the results of those evaluations in a way that can “help sustain the attention of political leaders and donors.” The identified gaps will be easy for donors to understand and to address, he said.
Only 430 million people, or 6 percent of the world’s population, live in the countries that are considered better prepared to prevent epidemics, according to their scores. (They include AustraliaBelgiumFinland,Oman, South Korea, Sloveniathe United Arab Emirates and the United States.) While those countries, highlighted in green, have scores above 80, not a single country has completed all the steps that are recommended, including making a plan to address gaps in funding and implementing the plan.
But more than 60 percent of countries, representing nearly 5 billion people, have not volunteered to conduct these epidemic preparedness evaluations, including most of Europe, Russia, China, India and virtually all of South America.
By the end of the year, 100 countries will have gone through this rigorous evaluation, which Frieden said is a real accomplishment and indicates the commitment of countries to improve.
“Progress assessing those gaps has been excellent,” he said. “Progress fixing them, not so good.”
The website is being presented Friday at the annual Aspen Ideas Spotlight Health Festival.

Nigeria, which has been battling outbreaks of yellow fever, monkey pox and Lassa virus, which can cause a lethal hemorrhagic fever resembling Ebola, is one of the countries identified by PreventEpidemics as not ready. Frieden’s group is helping Nigeria improve its disease surveillance by providing laptops and staff to the health ministry so its detection team gets better data.  FROM

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Jun 26, 2018

Doctors Try Genetically Modified Poliovirus As Experimental Brain Cancer Treatment




A genetically modified poliovirus may help some patients fight a deadly form of brain cancer, researchers report.
The experimental treatment seems to have extended survival in a small group of patients with glioblastoma who faced a grim prognosis because standard treatments had failed, Duke University researchers say.
"I've been doing this for 50 years and I've never seen results like this," says Dr. Darell Bigner, the director emeritus of the The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at the Duke Cancer Institute, who is helping develop the treatment.
But the researchers and other brain-cancer doctors caution the research is at a very early stage. In the study, only 21 percent of patients experienced a prolonged survival. Much more follow-up research is needed to better assess and hopefully improve the treatment's effectiveness, the researchers say.
"We have to be careful," says Annick Desjardins, a Duke neuro-oncologist who helped conduct the study. "But we have long-term survivors. We are seeing something we don't normally see with patients with glioblastoma."
Dr. David Reardon, clinical director of the Center for Neuro-Oncology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, says the Duke group's results may represent "a good, solid, important step forward" for patients with no alternatives.
"Unfortunately, for most patients this is not going to be the answer yet," says Reardon, who used to work at Duke but wasn't involved in the new research. "My fear is that every patient and family dealing with the devastating disease of glioblastoma is going to think the poliovirus is the cure. Unfortunately, the patients who are benefiting do reflect a relatively small percentage of the population."
The Duke results were published online Tuesday by the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with their presentation at the 22nd International Conference on Brain Tumor Research in Norway.
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. It's the cancer that killed former Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., and former Vice President Joe Biden's son Beau. Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., is fighting glioblastoma.
The Duke researchers decided to try to use a genetically modified version of the poliovirus, which can cause a devastating form of paralysis, because of the virus's ability to infect nervous system cells.
The scientists removed one of the virus's genes to prevent it from causing polio and replaced that gene with one from a harmless virus known as a rhinovirus, which ordinarily causes the common cold.
The engineered virus was then infused directly into tumors in patients' brains with a tube inserted through a hole in the skull. The modified virus retains the ability to infect and kill brain tumor cells, and also appears to trigger the patient's own immune system cells to attack the tumors, the researchers say.
Between 2012 and 2017, the researchers treated 61 patients, trying various doses of the modified virus to determine which was safest and most effective.
There are substantial risks. The treatment can cause a dangerous swelling in the brain that can lead to seizures and other complications, the researchers found. One patient suffered a life-threatening blood clot in the brain that required surgery.
But overall, the median length of survival was 12.5 months for patients treated with poliovirus, compared with 11.3 months for a similar group of patients treated in the past, the researchers report. And starting at two years after treatment, the two groups' survival rate began to diverge, the researchers reported.
After 24 months, 21 percent of the patients treated with the virus had survived compared with 14 percent of the historical comparison group. After three years, 21 percent of the poliovirus treated patients survived, compared with 4 percent of the other group, according to the researchers.
Two patients have survived more than six years, Bigner says. One has survived more than five years.
"You just don't see this percentage of long-term survivors with this disease," Bigner says. "Those that have survived more than two years are in remission, and we expect them to continue to be long-term survivors."
Some other researchers praised the results.
"We're extraordinarily encouraged by what we see with this data," says Mitchel Berger, chairman of neurosurgery at the University of California, San Francisco and director of its center for brain tumors. "It's phenomenal."
But some cancer doctors caution that comparing the outcomes for patients receiving the virus treatment to what would have happened to similar patients in the past could produce misleading conclusions.
The Duke researchers have started a follow-up study combining the treatment with a chemotherapy drug to try to improve the results. They also plan to combine the treatment with other drugs, including some called checkpoint inhibitors, to harness the immune system to fight cancer.
In addition, the researchers are planning to try the approach on children with brain cancer, as well as other types of cancer, including melanoma and breast cancer. "We believe we are going to be able to increase the results even more significantly," Bigner says.

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

The patient's legs, showing massive enlargement of the right calf and wasting on the left



+Author Affiliations
  1. aSt Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, UK Department of Neurology, bLane-Fox Respiratory Unit
  1. Dr RS Howard
  • Received 10 March 1997
  • Accepted 14 June 1999
A 41-year-old man developed an acute illness at the age of 9 months during which, following a viral illness with headache, he developed severe weakness and wasting of the limbs of the left side. After several months he began to recover, such that he was able to walk at the age of 2 years and later was able to run, although he was never very good at sports. He had stable function until the age of 18 when he began to notice greater than usual difficulty lifting heavy objects. By the age of 25 he was noticing progressive difficulty walking due to weakness of both legs, and he noticed that the right calf had become larger. The symptoms became more noticeable over the course of the next 10 years and ultimately both upper as well as both lower limbs had become noticeably weaker.
On examination there was wasting of the muscles of upper and lower limbs on the left, and massively hypertrophied gastrocnemius, soleus and tensor fascia late on the right. The calf circumference on the right exceeded that on the left by 10 cm (figure1). The right shoulder girdle, triceps, thenar eminence and small muscles of the hand were wasted and there was winging of both scapulae. The right quadriceps was also wasted. The wasted muscles were also weak but the hypertrophied right ankle plantar flexors had normal power. The tendon reflexes were absent in the lower limbs and present in the upper limbs, although the right triceps was reduced. The remainder of the examination was normal.
Figure 1
View larger version:
Figure 1
The patient's legs, showing massive enlargement of the right calf and wasting on the left

Questions

1
What is that nature of the acute illness in infancy?
2
What is the nature of the subsequent deterioration?
3
What investigations should be performed?
4
What is the differential diagnosis of the cause of the progressive calf hypertrophy?

Answers

QUESTION 1

An acute paralytic illness which follows symptoms of a viral infection with or without signs of meningitis is typical of poliomyelitis. Usually caused by one of the three polio viruses, it may also occur following vaccination and following infections with other enteroviruses.1 Other disorders which would cause a similar syndrome but with upper motor neurone signs would include acute vascular lesions, meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

QUESTION 2

A progressive functional deterioration many years after paralytic poliomyelitis is well known, although its pathogenesis is not fully understood.2 It is a diagnosis of exclusion; a careful search for alternative causes, for example, orthopaedic deformities such as osteoarthritis or worsening scoliosis, superimposed neurological disorders such as entrapment neuropathies or coincidental muscle disease or neuropathy, and general medical causes such as respiratory complications and endocrinopathies.3

QUESTION 3

Investigations revealed normal blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and normal biochemistry apart from a raised creatine kinase at 330 IU/l (normal range 60–120 IU/l), which is commonly seen in cases of ongoing denervation. Electromyography showed evidence of denervation in the right APB and FDI with polyphasic motor units and complex repetitive discharges, no spontaneous activity in the left calf and large polyphasic units in the right calf consistent with chronic partial denervation. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were normal. A lumbar myelogram was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the calves is shown in figure2.
Figure 2
View larger version:
Figure 2
Axial T1 weighted MRI scan (TR 588 ms, TE 15 ms) of the calves, showing gross muscle atrophy and replacement by adipose tissue on the left, and hypertrophy of the muscles on the right, with only minor adipose tissue deposition

QUESTION 4

The differential diagnosis of the progressive calf hypertrophy is given in the box.

Causes of calf muscle hypertrophy

Chronic partial denervation
  • radiculopathy
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy
  • spinal muscular atrophy
  • following paralytic poliomyelitis
    Neuromyotonia and myokymia
  • Isaac's syndrome
  • generalised myokymia
  • neurotonia
  • continuous muscle fibre activity due to: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy, Guillain Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, thymoma, thyrotoxicosis, thyroiditis
    Muscular dystrophies
    Myositis
    Infiltration
  • tumours
  • amyloidosis
  • cysticercosis
    Link here

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