May 17, 2019

Stress From Pain Caused By Brain Injury

Researchers Protect GABA Neurons from Oxidative 
Traumatic brain injury causing neuropathic pain is unfortunately a daily reality for millions of Americans. 
This condition generally occurs after injury to the central nervous system and it is a malfunction in the nervous system

that can become chronic.  Individuals can suffer pain even from a light touch or suddenly feel freezing from slight
changes in temperature.
Currently, researchers believe that neuropathic pain comes from spinal nerve cells that release the neurotransmitter
GABA.  GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is responsible for preventing over excitation
in the brain.  In this case, GABA neurons have been damaged or completely disabled allowing for pain impulses to go out of control.
 If these GABA neurons could be kept alive after injury to the nervous system,
it’s possible that an individual could forgo neuropathic pain.
Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) have discovered a way to keep these neurons alive.
 They found that the key to keeping GABA cells alive is to keep oxidative stress at bay.

According to  UTMB professor Jin Mo Chung, senior author of a paper on the research, “GABA neurons are particularly 
susceptible to oxidative stress, and we hypothesized that reactive oxygen species contribute to neuropathic sensitization by
promoting the loss of GABA neurons as well as hindering GABA functions.”
The researchers tested this hypothesis by conducting experiments in mice that had been surgically altered to simulate the
condition of neuropathic pain.  In a particular experiment, they treated mice with an antioxidant for a week after surgical treatment to
simulate neuropathic pain and compare them to mice that were untreated. 
These researchers report that mice treated with antioxidant demonstrated less pain-associated behavior and had 
more GABA neurons than untreated mice.
Chang reports that, “So by giving the antioxidant we lowered the pain behavior, and when we look at the spinal cords we see the
 GABA neuron population is almost the same as normal.  That suggested we prevented those neurons from dying, which is a big thing.”
However, Chung also reported that there was one complication.  There was a “moderate quantitative mismatch” between the behavioral
 data and the GABA-neuron counts.  Apparently the anti-oxidant mice displayed less pain behavior but their behavioral improvement wasn’t
as substantial as their GABA neuron count was higher than expected.  He offers an explanation that the surviving neurons were somehow impaired
which seemed to be supported by electrophysiological data.
At this time no clinical trials are planned, however, Chung believes that anti-oxidants have a great potential as a therapy for neuropathic pain. 
Chung adds, “If this is true and it works in humans — well, any time you can salvage neurons, it’s a good thing. 
Neuropathic pain is very difficult to treat, and I think this is a possibility, a good possibility.”


Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

It began with a headache: KC polio survivor is one of last iron lung users in U.S.

For 36 years, Mona Randolph, 82, has slept six nights per week in a 75-year-old, 700-pound and 6-foot-long iron machine . She couldn't breathe without it. 

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

The Last Effects of Polio

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Tramadol: this painkiller who wants you badly

Since Di-Antalvic was withdrawn from the market in 2011, another painkiller has come to replace it in our pharmacies: Tramadol.
This medication is used by patients to deal with joint pain and back pain. Since its distribution, its side effects are meticulously monitored by the French Agency for Health Safety of Health Products and the balance has fallen: Tramadol has dangerous side effects.
Patients who used it regularly found a strong addiction to this opium derivative, sleep disturbances, vomiting, disorientation, depression, fatigue, and even kidney and intestinal problems were found.
Since the withdrawal of Di-Antalvic from the market, Tramadol is marketed in France under the same name, or as active ingredient of twenty other drugs such as Tropalgic, Contramal or Ixprim. A French patient who took it regularly confided: “Nobody had warned me of addictive effects. I increased the doses and became completely addicted. He escaped by stopping consumption, at the price of ten days of nightmares.
In short, Tramadol is not the first drug to make a scandal. Many have even been the # 1 cause of cancer and fetal malformation. If you can avoid this kind of medicine, do not take it. Your life is at stake.
Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Inactivated polio vaccine now introduced worldwide

Momentous global effort enables record-breaking milestone for polio and immunisation
A nurse prepares a dose of inactivated polio vaccine during the launch in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in April 2015. Credit: Gavi/2015/Phil Moore.
Geneva, 9 May 2019 – After the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into Zimbabwe and Mongolia’s routine immunisation programmes with Gavi’s support, every country worldwide, including all 73 Gavi-supported countries, have now introduced the vaccine which protects children against the disease. 
“The commitment displayed by countries to introduce this vaccine so rapidly has been nothing short of remarkable,” said Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. “This is an unequalled achievement, which took the combined efforts of the global health community, governments and thousands of health workers across the globe. It is a global milestone in the fight against polio and we should all be proud of this effort, which moves us closer to a polio-free world.” 
By the end of 2017 Gavi, backed by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Norway and the United Kingdom, had helped more than 75 million children to be immunised against polio with IPV. Nepal became the first Gavi-supported country to introduce the vaccine in September 2014, just ten months after the Gavi Board agreed to support the Global Polio Eradication Initiative’s (GPEI) efforts as part of the global effort to eradicate polio. Mongolia and Zimbabwe became the last countries to introduce the vaccine in April 2019.
“Introducing IPV into routine immunisation programmes is a critical milestone on our journey towards a polio-free world,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the World Health Organization and Chair of the GPEI Polio Oversight Board. “It’s also vital that we use the infrastructure that has built up around polio immunisation programmes to ensure that all children receive other nationally-recommended vaccines. Achieving universal health coverage means making sure that all children, rich and poor, receive the same protection from vaccine-preventable diseases.”
Polio is a highly contagious viral infection, mainly affecting children under the age of five, which can lead to paralysis or even death. Only three countries – Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan – remain endemic to wild poliovirus. 
“Pakistan has made important progress towards stopping polio in the country,” said Dr Zafar Mirza, Pakistan’s Minister of State for National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination. “Case numbers are decreasing, and the immunity gaps continue to decline thanks to both IPV and the oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, in high-risk areas of the country, pockets of under-immunised children are allowing the virus to survive. Pakistan has an opportunity to end transmission this year, and to do that, we need to reach every single child with polio vaccines. Our Government under the leadership of Prime Minister Imran Khan, is strongly committed to stopping transmission of the poliovirus and ensuring a polio free future for our children,” the minister added.
Thanks to global efforts and vaccination, since the beginning of 2019 only fifteen cases of wild poliovirus have been recorded in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Moreover, Nigeria, the third endemic country could be declared polio-free by the end of the year. Polio cases have fallen by 99% since 1988, from an estimated 350,000 cases to 33 reported cases in 2018.
As part of the global effort to eradicate polio, all countries needed to introduce at least one dose of IPV per child and to begin the phased removal of OPV. As a first step, the poliovirus type 2 antigen was removed from OPV in April 2016 in a globally synchronis ed effort. At that time, not all countries had introduced IPV prior to this global switch as a result of constrained supply due to challenges faced by manufacturers when scaling up production capacities in line with the increased global demand.
Now that all countries have introduced IPV, efforts need to be targeted towards stopping transmission as well as strengthening routine immunisation to increase coverage which is a pillar of the polio eradication strategy. A new strategy setting out the roadmap to achieving a lasting world free of all polioviruses by 2023 is being presented to the World Health Assembly next month, with Gavi’s involvement in the effort being further strengthened and built upon.
IPV consists of inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types. It produces antibodies in the blood to all types of poliovirus. In the event of infection, these antibodies prevent the spread of the virus to the central nervous system and protect against paralysis. 
OPV has been the predominant vaccine used in the fight to eradicate polio. The attenuated poliovirus(es) contained in OPV can replicate effectively in the intestine but are around 10,000 times less able to enter the central nervous system than the wild virus. This enables individuals to mount an immune response. Virtually all countries which have eradicated polio used OPV to interrupt person to person transmission of the virus.

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is supported by donor governments (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, the People’s Republic of China, Principality of Monaco, Republic of Korea, Russia, South Africa, Spain, the State of Qatar, the Sultanate of Oman, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States), the European Commission, Alwaleed Philanthropies, the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and His Highness Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, as well as private and corporate partners (Absolute Return for Kids, Anglo American plc., The Audacious Alliance, The Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, China Merchants Group, Comic Relief, Deutsche Post DHL, the ELMA Vaccines and Immunization Foundation, Girl Effect, The International Federation of Pharmaceutical Wholesalers (IFPW), the Gulf Youth Alliance, JP Morgan, Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, “la Caixa” Foundation, LDS Charities, Lions Clubs International Foundation, Mastercard, Majid Al Futtaim, Orange, Philips, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever, UPS and Vodafone).
For more information click here.

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

May 15, 2019


We are a non-profit civil organization legally incorporated in Mexico City, on January 8, 2004. 

Our main goal is to spread information on Post-Polio Syndrome by all possible means, and to offer help to any person suffering from Poliomyelitis or Post-Polio Syndrome. 

Fortunately, thanks to science and medical research, we know the etiology of Post Polio Syndrome and its different pathological manifestations. This knowledge will help persons who had Poliomyelitis to make decisions to avoid or to delay the first’s signs of Post-Polio. 

One of the Post-Polio Association Litaff A.C. goals is to provide information onpreventive medicine through medical articles available by free downloads, organization of conferences and seminars,meditation specialized workshops and access to an excellent Cromotherapy treatment for Post-Polio Syndrome and Fibromyalgia, access to nutrition programs, etc. 
One of the multiple goals of our association is to help people suffering from Poliomyelitis sequels, Post Polio , Chronic Fatigue ,Fibromyalgia and accessibility.
To modify or to improve their life quality.

We base our advice on the experience of specialists and their medical recommendations. One really important goal always present in our minds is to help and support the family and friends of those who suffer from Post-Polio Syndrome, Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue, because they represent a fundamental support for them. We are able to provide them with reliable information and psychological help. 

We are concerned about the architectonic barriers in our cities and we’re working every day to improve and make the movements of any person with a motor incapacity easier. In this regard, we do have a good support from our authorities and from the society. Likewise, we offer some good job opportunities with flexible schedules, so every person has a chance to adapt. 

We invite every poliomyelitis survivor, every person suffering from Fibromyalgia and/or Chronic Fatigue to join this association through this page, so we can share our experiences and we can also be able to extend the network of families and friends of Post-Polio Litaff A.C. through its chat room, its discussion forum and its conferences. We invite you too, of course, to benefit of all the advantages we offer. 

We do consider that this Website could be a valuable media for spreading all the information gathered on Post-Polio Syndrome and, of course, an excellent way of knowing each person affected and helping each other. 
This could be done in different ways: direct economical contribution, professional medical attention, or even by donations of wheel chairs, crutches, scooters, and any aid you could think of. 

Any doctor who wishes to join us to help our members, any volunteer who wants to help in the activities that Post Polio Litaff A.C.  Organizes every day is absolutely welcome. 
Of course, we’re aware of the fact that our goals represent an incredible task. However, we do have great enthusiasm and spirit of solidarity that we are putting at the service of this noble cause, inspired by The Supreme Power that makes it All Possible. 

As a Post-Polio survivor, I send this message to all those who suffered from Poliomyelitis. I really want to tell you that you are not alone, we’re numerous persons suffering from this Syndrome and, in the same way we fought the Poliomyelitis in our childhood, we’re going to get together and fight together the battle against this still unknown Syndrome. Together, we will force the world to know about it. 

In case you’re already a Post-Polio Syndrome victim, the Post-Polio Association Litaff A.C. is here, so that together we can join ours forces and enthusiasm to get the necessary support. 

You are all welcome to become part of the association. 

“From this day, let’s try to live one day at a time without forcing ourselves to do more than our body is able to” and let’s live with a positive attitude facing forward this event that we can’t modify now. That’s why accepting it with a positive attitude will help any person suffering from it. 

“The Disability Only Defines ONE Difference”

E.Liliana Marasco Garrido
President and Founder

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

Why history forgets the NZ polio epidemic of 1916

When polio struck New Zealand in 1916, medics had little knowledge of the disease or treatments. By 1937, children with "infantile paralysis" got therapy in swimming pools like this one at Whanganui Hospital.
When polio struck New Zealand in 1916, medics had little knowledge of the disease or treatments. By 1937, children with "infantile paralysis" got therapy in swimming pools like this one at Whanganui Hospital.

An almost-forgotten polio outbreak in 1916 sheds light on what – and who – are remembered by history. Will Harvie reports.
In early 1916, a polio outbreak hit New Zealand and killed 125 people, most of them children and teens.
More than 1000 were infected and some must have been affected for life because polio can be crippling.
But records are unreliable. It's almost certain that more were infected and more died. Māori, for example, were counted separately and those records are still unseen.
But now University of Auckland anthropologist Dr Heather Battles has unearthed the Pākehā records and tells part of the story in the New Zealand chapter of a 2019 book called Bioarchaeology of Marginalized People.

Battles relates the hard facts of the polio epidemic – New Zealand's first. It occurred primarily in January through April and peaked in March 1916.
Of the deaths, 85 per cent occurred on the North Island. Children under 5 were the most likely to die, but deaths in the 15-19 age group were relatively high, especially among boys. None of the dead were listed as soldiers. It was a civilian epidemic.
Battles found almost no personal stories, but that of 15-year-old Philip Bishoprick is notably cruel. He was "at his work in the Post Office on Tuesday, carried away with infantile paralysis on Friday, and laid in the grave on Sunday afternoon", according to an account by Reverend J Hobbs of Waiapu, near Gisborne.
"The sudden shock warned parents forcibly that the epidemic might at any moment take their own healthy boys," Hobbs wrote. "The fact that the bereaved had only the last week bidden 'farewell' to two other sons leaving for Trentham [military camp], swelled the public sympathy," Hobbs wrote. 
Otherwise, there remains a "conspicuous historical silence" about the epidemic, Battles writes.
There is still today "an absence of remembrance in literature or in public memorials".
And why is that? Why has this particular contagion gone missing from history?
Battles proposes several explanations, the most brutal being that "the epidemic and its victims were marginalised except when and where they had relevance to the state".
"The Government would have been reluctant to memorialise the epidemic except in ways that reflected well upon itself," Battles writes. 

By 1961, some polio patients were treated in iron lungs, in which air was withdrawn from the chamber, creating a vacuum. Air was then pumped back in, putting pressure on the patient's chest, and forcing air into and out of the lungs. Some patients lived in iron lungs for many hours a day for decades.
By 1961, some polio patients were treated in iron lungs, in which air was withdrawn from the chamber, creating a vacuum. Air was then pumped back in, putting pressure on the patient's chest, and forcing air into and out of the lungs. Some patients lived in iron lungs for many hours a day for decades. 

And in 1916 the New Zealand state was overwhelmingly concerned with World War I. Even into the 1920s, the state and its peoples were memorialising the war dead – and to a lesser extent the war wounded. Children paralysed and killed by a mysterious disease were lost.
Polio's "impact was … subsumed by the casualties of the war and the mass morbidity and mortality from the 1918 flu – which itself was overshadowed by those military losses", writes Battles.
For decades, the 1918 influenza pandemic, which killed 9000 New Zealanders in about two months, was likewise forgotten. It's well known now, and its 100th anniversary was commemorated by Parliament late last year.
But it took historians and others some decades to bring the 1918 influenza contagion back into public awareness. Those efforts were aided by more recent epidemic scares such as Sars, ebola and zika.
The war had other impacts on the children of 1916, Battles said in an interview. Many doctors and nurses were abroad or in military camps, serving the troops. Relatively few resources were available for civilians and public health was not a priority. she said.  
Meanwhile, poliomyelitis, or infantile paralysis as it was called at the time, was a new epidemic and treatments uncertain. 

Polio vaccines wiped out the disease in New Zealand. Here a boy gets jabbed at Orakei School in September 1956.
Polio vaccines wiped out the disease in New Zealand. Here a boy gets jabbed at Orakei School in September 1956.

By the 1920s, war wounded were still getting rehabilitation around the country and some children living with the results of polio were sent to the same facilities. One, Roy Mason, contracted polio in 1916, aged about 10. He was told he wouldn't walk again. 
"But the returned men told him 'bugger that' and built him a set of parallel bars for walking practice; they encouraged and cheered him on as he made the effort to swing his legs forward", a relative told Battles.
By the 1940s and 50s, when new polio epidemics struck the country, scientists had developed treatments such as the iron lung, which helped polio patients with damaged lungs breathe.
By the mid-1950s, polio vaccines had been developed and mass jab programmes rolled out across the country. It has since been eliminated from this country, and only Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria have failed to stop its transmission, according to the World Health Organisation.
Know more about the 1916 polio epidemic? Contact Dr Heather Battles at the University of Auckland. 

Post Polio Litaff, Association A.C _APPLAC Mexico

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