17 may. 2019

Stress From Pain Caused By Brain Injury


Researchers Protect GABA Neurons from Oxidative 
Traumatic brain injury causing neuropathic pain is unfortunately a daily reality for millions of Americans. 
This condition generally occurs after injury to the central nervous system and it is a malfunction in the nervous system

that can become chronic.  Individuals can suffer pain even from a light touch or suddenly feel freezing from slight
changes in temperature.
Currently, researchers believe that neuropathic pain comes from spinal nerve cells that release the neurotransmitter
GABA.  GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is responsible for preventing over excitation
in the brain.  In this case, GABA neurons have been damaged or completely disabled allowing for pain impulses to go out of control.
 If these GABA neurons could be kept alive after injury to the nervous system,
it’s possible that an individual could forgo neuropathic pain.
Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB) have discovered a way to keep these neurons alive.
 They found that the key to keeping GABA cells alive is to keep oxidative stress at bay.

According to  UTMB professor Jin Mo Chung, senior author of a paper on the research, “GABA neurons are particularly 
susceptible to oxidative stress, and we hypothesized that reactive oxygen species contribute to neuropathic sensitization by
promoting the loss of GABA neurons as well as hindering GABA functions.”
The researchers tested this hypothesis by conducting experiments in mice that had been surgically altered to simulate the
condition of neuropathic pain.  In a particular experiment, they treated mice with an antioxidant for a week after surgical treatment to
simulate neuropathic pain and compare them to mice that were untreated. 
These researchers report that mice treated with antioxidant demonstrated less pain-associated behavior and had 
more GABA neurons than untreated mice.
Chang reports that, “So by giving the antioxidant we lowered the pain behavior, and when we look at the spinal cords we see the
 GABA neuron population is almost the same as normal.  That suggested we prevented those neurons from dying, which is a big thing.”
However, Chung also reported that there was one complication.  There was a “moderate quantitative mismatch” between the behavioral
 data and the GABA-neuron counts.  Apparently the anti-oxidant mice displayed less pain behavior but their behavioral improvement wasn’t
as substantial as their GABA neuron count was higher than expected.  He offers an explanation that the surviving neurons were somehow impaired
which seemed to be supported by electrophysiological data.
At this time no clinical trials are planned, however, Chung believes that anti-oxidants have a great potential as a therapy for neuropathic pain. 
Chung adds, “If this is true and it works in humans — well, any time you can salvage neurons, it’s a good thing. 
Neuropathic pain is very difficult to treat, and I think this is a possibility, a good possibility.”

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It began with a headache: KC polio survivor is one of last iron lung users in U.S.



For 36 years, Mona Randolph, 82, has slept six nights per week in a 75-year-old, 700-pound and 6-foot-long iron machine . She couldn't breathe without it. 

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The Last Effects of Polio





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Tramadol: this painkiller who wants you badly




Since Di-Antalvic was withdrawn from the market in 2011, another painkiller has come to replace it in our pharmacies: Tramadol.
This medication is used by patients to deal with joint pain and back pain. Since its distribution, its side effects are meticulously monitored by the French Agency for Health Safety of Health Products and the balance has fallen: Tramadol has dangerous side effects.
Patients who used it regularly found a strong addiction to this opium derivative, sleep disturbances, vomiting, disorientation, depression, fatigue, and even kidney and intestinal problems were found.
Since the withdrawal of Di-Antalvic from the market, Tramadol is marketed in France under the same name, or as active ingredient of twenty other drugs such as Tropalgic, Contramal or Ixprim. A French patient who took it regularly confided: “Nobody had warned me of addictive effects. I increased the doses and became completely addicted. He escaped by stopping consumption, at the price of ten days of nightmares.
In short, Tramadol is not the first drug to make a scandal. Many have even been the # 1 cause of cancer and fetal malformation. If you can avoid this kind of medicine, do not take it. Your life is at stake.
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Inactivated polio vaccine now introduced worldwide




Momentous global effort enables record-breaking milestone for polio and immunisation
IPV
A nurse prepares a dose of inactivated polio vaccine during the launch in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in April 2015. Credit: Gavi/2015/Phil Moore.
Geneva, 9 May 2019 – After the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into Zimbabwe and Mongolia’s routine immunisation programmes with Gavi’s support, every country worldwide, including all 73 Gavi-supported countries, have now introduced the vaccine which protects children against the disease. 
“The commitment displayed by countries to introduce this vaccine so rapidly has been nothing short of remarkable,” said Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. “This is an unequalled achievement, which took the combined efforts of the global health community, governments and thousands of health workers across the globe. It is a global milestone in the fight against polio and we should all be proud of this effort, which moves us closer to a polio-free world.” 
By the end of 2017 Gavi, backed by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Norway and the United Kingdom, had helped more than 75 million children to be immunised against polio with IPV. Nepal became the first Gavi-supported country to introduce the vaccine in September 2014, just ten months after the Gavi Board agreed to support the Global Polio Eradication Initiative’s (GPEI) efforts as part of the global effort to eradicate polio. Mongolia and Zimbabwe became the last countries to introduce the vaccine in April 2019.
“Introducing IPV into routine immunisation programmes is a critical milestone on our journey towards a polio-free world,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the World Health Organization and Chair of the GPEI Polio Oversight Board. “It’s also vital that we use the infrastructure that has built up around polio immunisation programmes to ensure that all children receive other nationally-recommended vaccines. Achieving universal health coverage means making sure that all children, rich and poor, receive the same protection from vaccine-preventable diseases.”
Polio is a highly contagious viral infection, mainly affecting children under the age of five, which can lead to paralysis or even death. Only three countries – Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan – remain endemic to wild poliovirus. 
“Pakistan has made important progress towards stopping polio in the country,” said Dr Zafar Mirza, Pakistan’s Minister of State for National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination. “Case numbers are decreasing, and the immunity gaps continue to decline thanks to both IPV and the oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, in high-risk areas of the country, pockets of under-immunised children are allowing the virus to survive. Pakistan has an opportunity to end transmission this year, and to do that, we need to reach every single child with polio vaccines. Our Government under the leadership of Prime Minister Imran Khan, is strongly committed to stopping transmission of the poliovirus and ensuring a polio free future for our children,” the minister added.
Thanks to global efforts and vaccination, since the beginning of 2019 only fifteen cases of wild poliovirus have been recorded in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Moreover, Nigeria, the third endemic country could be declared polio-free by the end of the year. Polio cases have fallen by 99% since 1988, from an estimated 350,000 cases to 33 reported cases in 2018.
As part of the global effort to eradicate polio, all countries needed to introduce at least one dose of IPV per child and to begin the phased removal of OPV. As a first step, the poliovirus type 2 antigen was removed from OPV in April 2016 in a globally synchronis ed effort. At that time, not all countries had introduced IPV prior to this global switch as a result of constrained supply due to challenges faced by manufacturers when scaling up production capacities in line with the increased global demand.
Now that all countries have introduced IPV, efforts need to be targeted towards stopping transmission as well as strengthening routine immunisation to increase coverage which is a pillar of the polio eradication strategy. A new strategy setting out the roadmap to achieving a lasting world free of all polioviruses by 2023 is being presented to the World Health Assembly next month, with Gavi’s involvement in the effort being further strengthened and built upon.
IPV consists of inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types. It produces antibodies in the blood to all types of poliovirus. In the event of infection, these antibodies prevent the spread of the virus to the central nervous system and protect against paralysis. 
OPV has been the predominant vaccine used in the fight to eradicate polio. The attenuated poliovirus(es) contained in OPV can replicate effectively in the intestine but are around 10,000 times less able to enter the central nervous system than the wild virus. This enables individuals to mount an immune response. Virtually all countries which have eradicated polio used OPV to interrupt person to person transmission of the virus.

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is supported by donor governments (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, the People’s Republic of China, Principality of Monaco, Republic of Korea, Russia, South Africa, Spain, the State of Qatar, the Sultanate of Oman, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States), the European Commission, Alwaleed Philanthropies, the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and His Highness Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, as well as private and corporate partners (Absolute Return for Kids, Anglo American plc., The Audacious Alliance, The Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, China Merchants Group, Comic Relief, Deutsche Post DHL, the ELMA Vaccines and Immunization Foundation, Girl Effect, The International Federation of Pharmaceutical Wholesalers (IFPW), the Gulf Youth Alliance, JP Morgan, Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, “la Caixa” Foundation, LDS Charities, Lions Clubs International Foundation, Mastercard, Majid Al Futtaim, Orange, Philips, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever, UPS and Vodafone).
For more information click here.

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